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Huntington Free Library 

Native American 





3 1924 097 626 257 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 




Rev. Albert Keiser, Ph. D. 

Professor of English at Augustana College 
Sioux Falls, S. D. 

With Illustrations 



Minneapolis, Minnesota 

Copyright. 1922, bv 

Augsburg Publishing House 

Minneapolis. Minn. 

To those noble men and pious women 

Whose heroic work and labor of love 

For the Red Man 

The following pages describe. 

This book is affectionately dedicated 


THESE unpretentious pages are sent forth In the 
hope that the friends of missions may be in- 
formed as to what the Lutheran Church has done 
and is doing in bringing the Gospel to the Red Man. 
The author has collected and put into convenient 
form the facts of this half-forgotten work, of which 
no complete treatment has ever appeared, but which 
is worthy of an adequate presentation. As natural 
in a book of this kind, his indebtedness to others is 
large. This refers especially to chapters III and IV. 
In other parts the author has not hesitated now and 
then to adapt or to take over an adequate rendering. 
The Bibliographical Notes at the end of the book 
will give a more detailed account of the sources. 
However, every effort has been made to verify facts 
and statements, and to render the account as clear as 
possible. For the work being done at present the 
missionaries themselves have been constant and will- 
ing helpers. Sincere thanks are due them for their 
ungrudging co-operation. The manuscript dealing 
with their particular mission was submitted to them, 
tho the author alone must be held responsible for 
mistakes and shortcomings that may occur. 

If the little book, the result of a labor of love in 
leisure hours, should acquaint the reader somewhat 
with the Lutheran contribution to the Christlanlza- 
tlon of the Red Man, and instil In him true love for 
the noble task, the efforts of the undersigned will 
have been more than rewarded. 

Albert Keiser. 

Sioux Falls, S. D., April 18, 1921. 


Preface 5 

Contents 6 

List of Illustrations 7 

Introduction 9 

I. The Swedes on the Delaware 18 

II. Pious Wishes 43 

III. The Work Among the Chippewas in 

Michigan and Minnesota 55 

IV. The Mission of the Iowa Synod in the 

Northwest 95 

V. The Danish Cherokee Mission in Okla- 
homa 115 

VI. The Apache Mission of the Wisconsin 

Synod in Arizona 121 

VII. The Work of the Missouri Synod Among 

the Stockbridges 152 

VIII. The Bethany Indian Mission of the Nor- 
wegian Church 169 

IX. The Eielsen Synod Mission among the 

Pottawatomies 183 

Bibliographical Notes 187 

^"Jex 190 


A Page from Campanius' Catechism 36 

Hartwick Seminary, Otsego Co., N. Y 54 

Wilhelm Loehe 58 

Friedrich August Craemer 61 

Bethany Indian Church 79 

Bethany 80 

Mission Station on the Powder River 103 

Missionary Krebs and Three Christian Indians .111 

Before the Boarding School 118 

Apache Women 123 

Station Peridot 130 

Rev. Mayerhoff and the First Dwelling near 
Fort Apache 136 

Station East Fork 138 

Rev. G. Harders 143 

Buildings at the Cibecue 148 

The Mission Station at Red Springs 159 

View from the Lake 162 

Indians and Their Dwelling 176 

Missionary Workers with Their Charges. ... 177 

Scenes from Indian Life 179 


WITHOUT fear of contradiction it may safely be 
said that no other race has made such a strong 
appeal to the human imagination as the Indian. 
Countless descriptions have appeared since Columbus 
first laid his eyes upon him, and in his belief to have 
reached India applied to the natives the name which 
has clung to them ever since. And that interest in 
the Red Man, so called from the ornamental war 
paint, has never ceased, tho of course it has assumed 
different forms. Besides other characteristics, his 
acumen and intelligence, in respect to which he is 
now generally conceded to be inferior to the white 
man, have always been a source of fascination and 
even now remain his chief claim to fame. 

It is eminently proper and fitting that we should 
take a benevolent interest in the natives of this coun- 
try, who are the real Americans. For we whites 
have trodden under foot this race, we have taken his 
rolling prairies and cut down his forests without 
granting adequate compensation, whatever one may 
think of the laws governing progress and civilization. 
And the treatment which the Indian received at the 
hands of the Government until recent times forms a 
series of broken promises, violated treaties, and 
scraps of paper, a chapter in our history so dark and 
shocking as to make every upright person blush with 
shame. Many forces have tended to make real the 
sentiment of colonial times that the only good Indian 

10 Lutheran Mission Jf'ork 

is a dead Indian. And tho of recent years the Gov- 
ernment has tried to atone for the injustice of the 
past, the fact remains that we witness today the van- 
ishing of a race which once called these regions his 
own, whose only hope of preservation in some form 
seems to be assimilation with the whites and ab- 
sorption by them. 

There naturally appears a great diversity In the 
description of the Indian. First we have that noble 
figure of romance with his admirable characteristics, 
largely a creation of the imagination. The other 
extreme we meet in the opinion of the colonial 
pioneer, who wished for his opponent a resting place 
under the sod. And descriptions have made known 
in late years the Reservation Indian, dirty, lazy, and 
shiftless. As a matter of fact, all these characteri- 
zations are generalizations which ignore the marked 
differences which exist between the various tribes and 
under changing circumstances. However, It must 
be admitted that the Indian was a savage, with the 
virtues and the vices of the same. Under the degen- 
erating influence of the whites his many admirable 
traits were overshadowed by the development of the 
baser instincts. In time not only his outward condi- 
tion, but also his character underwent a marked 
change by force of circumstances. 

For our particular purposes the religion of the 
native American is of special Interest. In a general 
way it may be classified as nature worship, with Its 
belief that most objects are animated by spirits, the 
so-called manitoes. But one cannot be too cautious 
m defining the religious ideas of the Indian, for we 

Among the American Indians 1 1 

must remember that in the presence of intruding 
strangers he naturally would be taciturn as to his 
most sacred emotions. And then the investigations 
belong to the period when his religious beliefs were 
in a state of transition, it being, for instance, doubt- 
ful whether the Idea of the great over-ruling spirit 
had been conceived before the advent of the white 
man. But he unquestionably believed that those 
spirits had a magical influence not only over his ex- 
ternal acts, but also internal states, which showed it- 
self in dreams, in sickness, and In death. It there- 
fore became an important matter to retain the good 
will of the friendly power and to gain control over 
the hostile forces. Thus a way was opened for the 
powerful Influence of the medicine men, as charms, 
prayers, and sacrifices were believed to be very po- 
tent. Contrary to popular opinion. It seems that 
many of the tribes paid little attention to the future 
state, tho later the idea of the 'ampler hunting 
grounds beyond the night,' perhaps a product of 
Christian association, becomes more prominent. 

The Indian, like so many other primitive peoples, 
had of course no real conception of innate depravity 
and personal guilt. Sorrow and repentance are Ideas 
foreign to his mind, as also happiness in the regions 
beyond does not depend upon an upright life here on 
earth. As a rule, the religion of his fathers is good 
enough for the Indian, and he views the alien doc- 
trines of Christianity with Indifference and contempt. 
Dogmatic statements leave him cold, as he must be 
shown by concrete examples the superiority of the 
white man's religion over his own. In the words of 

12 Lutheran Mission Work 

Francis E. Leupp, formerly Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs: "If you approach the Indian with the bare 
abstract proposition that you are bringing him a reh- 
gion better than that of his fathers, you must prepare 
for either resentment or indifference ; but if you show 
him new ways of appeasing his hunger, or mend his 
broken leg, or save the life of a fever-stricken child, 
you have given him something which locks into his 
environment, as it were. When he sees you doing 
this for him not once or twice but continuously, 
wonder begins to stir in his mind as to what It all 
means. Then comes your opportunity for telling 
him that your religion is a religion of love: that it is 
founded on the idea that all human beings, of every 
name and race, are brothers; that you are trying to 
do him good because he is your brother and you love 
him. And so your chain of instruction can go on, 
one link being forged into another as fast as his 
understanding will open to admit It." 

One difficulty In the Christlanlzation of the 
Indian is of course denominational rivalry, as the 
naive creature is puzzled by the "hydra-headed" 
faith, as Ch. A. Eastman calls It. The hostile atti- 
tude sometimes assumed by the different denomina- 
tions makes him wary. Assurances to the effect that 
all worship the same diety, and that the differences 
are non-essential, are of little avail. To quote Leupp 
again : "Doctrinal subtleties are of course beyond the 
reach of the ordinary Indian's mind, but in matters 
of discipline he discovers what seem to him serious 
incongruities. An old chief once expressed to me 
his deep concern because a missionary had warned 

Among the American Indians 13 

his children that they would be punished after death 
if they broke the Sabbath with their accustomed 
games, yet he had seen with his own eyes a mission- 
ary playing tennis on Sunday. Another raised in my 
presence,, with a sly suggestion of satire in his tone, 
the question of marriage. One missionary, he told 
us — referring to a visit from a Mormon apostle sev- 
eral years before — had four wives, and said it was 
good in the sight of the white man's God; the mis- 
sionary who preached at the agency school had only 
one wife, and said that that was all right, but it 
would be wicked for him to marry any more ; but the 
priest who came once in a while to bless the children 
had no wife at all, and said that the white man's 
God would be displeased with him if he took even 

The nature of the Indian language also has been 
a factor retarding rapid missionary progress. Close 
to a hundred linguistic families with many dialects 
are represented in the United States, a fact which 
makes difficult the language situation as viewed from 
the missionary standpoint. And the excessive com- 
pounding of Indian words has always been a fruitful 
source of difficulty. For instance, Eliot, the gifted 
Indian missionary, worked fifteen years before he had 
mastered the native tongue sufficiently. Confining 
ourselves to the Lutherans, a number of testimonies 
as to the difficulty to be overcome are forthcoming. 
In October, 1848, Baierlein declares that he is unable 
to bring his thoughts close to the hearts of the child- 
ren, and even in 1850 he complains: "No little effort 
must be expended upon the composition of an Indian 

14 Lutheran Mission JVork 

order of worship, a liturgy for the services, and the 
formulae for baptisms, marriages, and funerals, be- 
cause everything must be adapted to our circumstan- 
ces and be translated into a language which has no 
word for Heaven or hell, for conscience, pain, and 
wound — for each of the many names for injuries ex- 
presses at the same time whether the wounded has 
been hit, stabbed, shot, etc. — and for hundreds of 
other things, it being almost impossible to express 
Christian thoughts however one may try to para- 
phrase them Until now, for instance, we 

have been unable to find a term for church and con- 
gregation. Equally difficult is also the translation of 
the Catechism. Often, when with the help of the 
interpreter I had succeeded during many hours' work 
in translating a few words or even a single one, I 
have found after he was gone, or in copying, new mis- 
takes, because heathen concepts cling to all terms. 
The most laborious work is the translation of Ger- 
man hymns into Indian, because often a single word 
is too long for a whole line of the oi:iginal." Miess- 
ler, who had begun his study of the Chippewa lan- 
guage in 1851, at the end of 1858 writes: "At last I 
have risked, and thank God, could risk to notify the 
interpreter of his discharge. The composition of the 
sermons in the clumsy and inadequate Indian lan- 
guage still gives me great trouble, and no few mis- 
takes creep in, as I have no other helps than a sim- 
ple dictionary. But I shall spare no pains, especially 
since I notice that the Indians are much more atten- 
tive w'hen they receive the word of life directly from 
my lips." And later on wc find that the inability of 

Among the American Indians 15 

Auch to speak the Chippewa language was mainly 
responsible for the loss of the Indian congregation 
at Sheboyank. 

The inadequacy of the Indian language for ex- 
pressing spiritual conceptions may also be noted. 
Rev. Harders illustrates this point in regard to the 
Apache speech: "Good, holy, honorable, upright, 
equitable, honest, just, magnificent, splendid, perfect, 
correct, right, etc., for us words of different coloring 
and of different shades of meaning, are all the same 
to the Apache, who uses only one word which covers 
all the conceptions, the word Nojo. It is the same 
with the opposite. He has not even a distinctive 
word for it. It is simply Do-nojo-da. The do and 
the da at the beginning and the end are the negation, 
which change the nojo into its opposite. Donojoda 
means bad, wicked, sinful, wrong, not right, unholy, 
imperfect, unjust, dishonest, etc." 

But the most formidable enemy of missionary 
success has been modern civilization with its vices. 
Even the approach of the paleface would involve 
the pushing 'back of the Indian to more remote 
regions. This of course played havoc with many an 
established mission. To this fact must at least 
partly be attributed the failure of Loehe's pet idea 
to plant colonies and to make settlers of the converts. 
For the love of the wild forests and the native haunts 
always proved stronger than the well ordered life 
of civilization with its comforts. As Baierlein puts 
it: "One fact only had been overlooked, namely, that 
a people of hunters could not possibly live in the 
neighborhood of a colony, and, on the other hand, a 

16 Lutheran Mission JFork 

colony cannot be located in the primeval forests with 
its scattered camps. For a colony needs above all 
roads and a location not too fdr from older settle- 
ments. On the other hand, the Indians need no 
roads and do not desire any, in order that the whites 
may remain away. Wherever a deer is able to go, 
an Indian may, and that is for him road enough, the 
one most dear to his heart." Even more damaging 
than the mere approach of civilization were the in- 
difference and the vices of so-called Christians, which 
could not but bring contempt upon that religion itself. 
And hand in hand with it went the diabolical scheme 
of systematically corrupting the Indian by means of 
fire-water. The reservations have of course re- 
moved some of these handicaps, and as a rule the 
Government agents render every facihty to further 
missionary endeavor as a stabilizing and uplifting 

That the Christian mission work, even aside 
from its purely religious considerations, has been a 
tremendous factor in the uplift of the Indian, there 
can be no doubt. The evidences of it are too patent 
and readily admitted even by skeptical Government 
officials. No true Christian will doubt that the 
words of the missionary command also apply to the 
Red Man. It is a fine thought with which Loehe is 
said to have closed his appeal for the Indian when 
the Central Missionary Society of Bavaria contem- 
plated withdrawing further support from the Indian 
mission because of its meager results: "Weill If the 
Indians should become extinct, and if they refuse to 
be converted, then let us illuminate their passing with 
the torch of the Gospel." 

Among the American Indians 17 

And tho there be no hope for the Indian as a 
people, there is still room for him as an integral part 
of Caucasian civilization, and Christianity may fit 
him to become a useful member of modern society, 
while the spiritual regeneration with its happiness 
beyond has a value incalculable. 

Chapti K I 

THE discovery of a new world by Columbus in 
1492 was far-reaching in its effects upon the 
nations of Europe. As the wonderful reports came 
back, the mental horizon of millions suddenly 
widened, and their imagination was powerfully stimu- 
lated. Soon the spirit of foreign adventure per- 
vaded every class of society and made possible many 
a hazardous undertaking. The success of Spain in 
acquiring large territories and immense riches 
naturally aroused the jealousy of other nations and 
induced them to make similar efforts. Especially 
England, France, Holland, as also Sweden strove 
to advance their own interests by establishing trade 
companies engaged in colonial enterprises. 

Altho the motives behind the work of coloniza- 
tion were largely economic, from the very beginning 
the idea of missionary labors among the heathen was 
not absent. Some of the early efforts of coloniza- 
tion were in fact largely conceived in a missionary 
spirit. In not a few instances missionaries even pre- 
ceded the traders and settlers, actually opening a way 
for them. But granted that some genuine and dis- 
interested efforts to enlighten and to uplift the Red 
Man were made, only too often the missionary enter- 
prise was looked upon as a means of furthering com- 
merce with the natives, and not seldom served to hide 
base exploitation. To put the case concretely: as a 

Among the American Indians 19 

rule the so-called Christian nations were interested 
more in the gold and the furs the Indian could furnish 
than in his immortal soul. Time and again profit 
and the greed for gold thwarted noble and conse- 
. crated men in their efforts to carry the Gospel to the 
benighted heathen. 

However, not always did sordid motives lurii be- 
hind the missionary enterprise, for a number of 
notable exceptions occur. Viewed from the mission- 
ary and humanitarian standpoint, the settlement of 
the Swedes on the banits of the Delaware river fur- 
nishes a bright page in the history of American colon- 
ization. Added interest is supplied by the fact that 
the idea was conceived in the reign of Gustavus Adol- 
phus, whose exertions in behalf of Protestantism at 
a critical time are well and favorably known. 

A prominent merchant of Stockholm, W. Usse- 
linx by name, was the first to propose to the Swedish 
government the planting of a colony in the New 
World. A native of Holland, which at that time 
took high rank among sea-faring nations, he had been 
very zealous in promoting the mercantile interests of 
his country by his trade activities. As early as 1590 
the energetic merchant and man of affairs had pro- 
posed the formation of a West India Company. 
Altho at that time the dangers and uncertainties of 
such an undertaking were considered too great, he 
later succeeded in forming the Dutch West India 
Company. But failing to receive "what he thought 
his just dues," he left Holland in order to find a more 
propitious field for the furtherance of his plans. 
It was in 1624 that Usselinx approached King 

20 Lutheran Mission JTork 

Gustav-us Adolphus with a plan for the organization 
of a trading company whose business interests were 
to include America. The success of similar Dutch 
and English companies formed some years before 
undoubtedly helped to give his schemes more than a 
hearing. The young and ambitious king was natur- 
ally eager to discuss means whereby Sweden would 
be enabled to share in the profitable trade with newly 
discovered countries. Usselinx persuaded the king 
that such an undertaking was likely to lead to the 
Christianization of the heathen, besides promising 
large financial returns^-in short, "it would greatly 
tend to the honor of God, to man's eternal welfare, 
to his majesty's service, and to the good of the king- 
dom." As the king and his advisers looked with 
favor upon the plan, steps towards its realization 
were accordingly undertaken. In 1626 Usselinx 
was allowed to issue a lengthy appeal, in which he 
enumerated the advantages which the formation of 
such a company would bring to the nation. When 
delay in perfecting the organization and consequent 
lack of funds made the outlook dubious, the king 
himself issued a proclamation, encouraging men of 
all ranks to take part in the new enterprise. A char- 
ter was granted to the company, in which the king, 
members of the nobility, and prominent merchants 
were among the stockholders. 

Elaborate preparations were now made, and the 
work was ripe for execution when Sweden became 
involved in the Thirty Years' War, which necessi- 
tated a delay in carrying out the plans. But the 
king kept the project, which a short time before his 

Among the American Indians 21 

death (1632) he called "the jewel of his kingdom," 
constantly in mind, and even invited the German 
Protestants to participate in its privileges. His 
d«ath on the field of Luetzen, however, seemed to 
sound the death-knell to the undertaking. But the 
project was not abandoned entirely. Already in the 
next year the celebrated chancellor of Sweden, Axel 
Oxenstierna, renewed the charter and also invited 
the co-operation of the German Protestants. The 
former plan of organizing a trading company was 
dropped, the society limiting its activities to the 
establishment of a colony In the New World. With 
ntw vigor the preparations for planting a small col- 
ony were continued, due largely to the energetic work 
of a man who was to become the head of the new 
settlement on the eastern coast of America. 

Peter Minuit had been the first governor of the 
New Netherlands, but thru factional strife among 
the stockholders of the Dutch West India Company 
and the displeasure of the colonists with the feudal 
system he had to enforce, he was compelled to resign, 
and in 1632 returned to Holland. About 1635 he 
offered his services to one of his countrymen con- 
rtected with the Swedish company, and soon became 
interested in the colonial and mercantile plans of 
Sweden. It was he who laid before the chancellor 
the first practical plan for the colonization of the 
land bordering on the Delaware, and also proposed 
the name New Sweden. His energy soon revived 
the sinking spirits and re-united the scattered mem- 
bers of the trading society. Here was a man who 
inspired confidence, as he was thoroly familiar with 

22 Lutheran Mission JFork 

all the problems to be solved in making a settlement 
in the New World, and therefore offered the best 
possible guaranty for a successful and auspicious 
start. No wonder that his proposals were carefully 
considered and followed. 

At last the preparations were complete, and in 
the autumn of 1637 two ships, the "Key of Calmar" 
and the "Bird Griffin," sailed for the New World. 
As far as the Indian was concerned, Sweden's policy 
was to be entirely pacific, tho at that time the nation 
was at the height of its power, being one of the fore- 
most military countries in Europe. This policy of 
friendship with the natives was deliberately adopted 
and always carried out. It is significant that among 
the provisions aboard the ships there were also pres- 
ents for the Indians. In addition, the governor re- 
ceived intructions looking toward the Christianiza- 
tion of the Red Man. 

Minuit held that under the circumstances the 
region of the Delaware was best suited for the settle- 
ment, and accordingly the colonists occupied land 
now included within the states of Delaware, Pennsyl- 
vania, and New Jersey, the first settlement being 
made on the present site of Wilmington, Delaware. 
As the Dutch West India Company regarded them 
as intruders, and as the numerous Indian tribes 
might be opposed to the settlement of the Swedes, 
the historic fort Christina, named in honor of the 
queen, was built immediately after the landing. And 
well might it be, for only eight years before a com- 
pany of Dutchmen had been exterminated by the 
Indians at the very place which the Swedes occupied 

Among the American Indians 23 

The natives of that region were known among 
the Europeans as Delawares, in their own language 
being called Lenne Lennape. They belonged to the 
great Algonquin family, whose territory stretched 
from the mouth of the St. Lawrence river north to 
Hudson Bay, and west to the Rocky Mountains; 
southward it extended down the Atlantic coast to the 
neighborhood of Florida, being bounded by the Mis- 
sissippi in the west. Within a small circle of the 
Swedes, there were ten separate tribes, each having 
its own sachem or chief. Farther away lived the 
Minckus or Minques, renowned for their warlike 
character, tho small in numbers. These belonged 
to the Mohawk branch of the powerful and perfid- 
ious Iroquois nation, an intrusive race, since their 
territory was originally farther north. But they 
always remained on excellent terms with the Swedes, 
speaking of them as their "own people." 

We need not enter here into a detailed descrip- 
tion of the character, manners, and customs of the 
tribes. The reports about them are various and 
sometimes also contradictory. The Indians are 
described as "big and strong, well built men." It is 
also claimed, "when they are not offended, they are 
an honest, goodhearted people, and will even expose 
themselves to death for those whom they profess 
friendship. In general, they show themselves 
friendly and upright in their intercourse with 
strangers who treat them in the same manner; but 
sometimes they can be very cunning and even 
roguish." Other accounts, however, are less favor- 

24 Lutheran Mission IVork 

The Swedes immediately inaugurated their peace- 
ful policy toward the Indians by making a purchase 
of land. Deeds were drawn up and signed by both 
parties, the Indian chiefs tracing their totem marks 
on the documents. Some of the papers were subse- 
quently sent to Sweden and preserved in the royal ar- 
chives. In the course of time the Swedes came in 
possession of considerable tracts of land. 

This just treatment of the natives was partly dic- 
tated by prudence and made advisable by the attitude 
of the Dutch, who regarded the Swedes as intruders. 
The Dutch had been on the ground first, and the 
they had withdrawn some years before, under inter- 
national law had the best claim to the lands of the 
Delawares. The Swedes, knowing this, maintained 
that purchase from the Indians alone gave one a 
clear title. So in a document "the wild inhabitants 
of the country" are spoken of as "its rightful Lords." 
The Dutch, on the other hand, also tried to strength- 
en their title, and therefore sought to buy the ab- 
original right to the country. Naturally there was 
a disposition on both sides to remain on good terms 
with the natives. Never once was this peace broken, 
and no Indian blood was shed on the Delaware river 
by either party during the Swedish occupation. The 
impression made upon the Indians was extremely 
favorable, and more than a hundred years after- 
wards, when Swedish rule had long since ceased, the 
Indians continued to speak of the Swedes with the 
greatest affection. This peaceful policy later made 
possible the success of Penn's attitude towards the 

Among the American Indians 25 

Indians, a fact often overlooked by historians and 

The first religious services were conducted at the 
fort, churches being erected afterwards. These, 
however, were amply protected. For instance, we 
are told about a blockhouse at the strand at Wicacoa, 
now Philadelphia, which was altered so as to serve 
for church purposes. Such a blockhouse would be 
considered as answering the purpose very well, for 
at first the churches were of the same material. The 
colonists did not immediately learn to trust the In- 
dians and therefore properly prepared against a sud- 
den attack. According to Rudman, a later mission- 
ary, the churches were so built that "after a suitable 
elevation, like any other house, a projection was 
made some courses higher, out of which they could 
shoot, so that if the heathen fell upon them, which 
could not be done without their coming up to the 
house, then the Swedes could shoot down upon them 
continually, and the heathen, who used only bows 
and arrows, could do them little or no injury." For- 
tunately, the existing friendly relations made such 
protection unnecessary. 

During the first years of Swedish occupation no 
energetic efforts to convert the Indians were made, 
the only minister of the colony. Rev. Torkillus, being 
too much taken up with work among his own flock. 
To be sure, the Indians were invited to the church 
services, but naturally profited little or nothing, as 
Torkillus was unable to speak their language. After 
a few years' service he became ill, dying In 1643. 

As his successor, John Campanlus was chosen. 

26 Lutheran Mission fFork 

who arrived in New Sweden in 1643. He was born 
in 1601, was highly gifted, and had received an ex- 
cellent education. Besides being a scholar, he seems 
to have been an able preacher and a man who per- 
formed his duties with faithfulness. At the same 
time a new governor was appointed, the energetic, 
tho not always prudent John Printz. He received 
elaborate and detailed instructions regarding his 
rule in the colony. The passage relating to the In- 
dians is of special interest to us: "The wild nations, 
bordering upon all other sides, the Governor shall 
understand how to treat with all humanity and 
respect, that no violence or wrong be done to them 
by Her Royal Majesty or subjects aforesaid; but he 
shall rather, at every opportunity, exert himself, that 
the same wild people may gradually be instructed in 
the truths and worship of the Christian religion, and 
in other ways be brought to civilization and good 
government, and in this manner properly guided. 
Especially shall he seek to gain their confidence, and 
impress upon their minds that neither he, the Gov- 
ernor, nor his people and subordinates are come in 
those parts to do them any wrong and injury, but 
much more for the purpose of furnishing them with 
such things as they may need for the ordinary wants 
of life, and so also for such things as are found 
among them which they themselves cannot make for 
their own use, or buy or exchange." Oxenstierna 
and the members of the Council of Sweden, by whom 
the instructions are signed, enjoined the governor to 
keep a watchful eye on the pelt trade, to prevent all 
fraud and deception, and to enter into profitable 

Among the American Indians 27 

relationship with the Indians by underselling the 
English and the Dutch. 

As Governor Printz distrusted the Indians, he 
was not In entire accord with the wishes of the home 
government. Later he even proposed militant 
means looking to their conversion. All who would 
not accept Christianity should be exterminated, and 
in order to carry out his plans, he asked for sufficient 
soldiers, which fortunately were not furnished by the 
government. However, for the time being expe- 
diency caused him to avoid all friction by using peace- 
ful measures in his relationship with them. Council- 
lor Brahe of the privy council advised Printz to teach 
the Indians like children and especially to work on 
their imagination thru the ceremonies of the 
Lutheran service, for "outward ceremonies greatly 
affect such savage people." The governor followed 
the advice and reports that they kept some of the 
Indians, especially children, at the settlement, but 
that invariably the savages would take to the woods 

When, in 1643, Rev. John Campanius arrived, he 
at once energetically took hold of affairs. From the 
outset he was greatly interested In the Indians. 
Some graphic touches of his relations with them are 
told in a book entitled A Short Description of the 
Province of New Sweden, which his grandson 
Thomas Campanius published In 1702. He relates 
the following :"The Indians were frequent visitors 
at my grandfather's house. When, for the first 
time, he performed divine services in the Swedish 
congregation, they came to hear him, and greatly 

28 Lutheran Mission Jl'ork 

wondered that he had so much to say, and that he 
stood alone, and talked so long, while all the rest 
were listening in silence. This excited in them 
strange suspicions; they thought everything was not 
right, and that some conspiracy was going forward 
among us; in consequence of which my grandfather's 
life and that of the other priests were, for some 
time, in considerable danger from the Indians who 
daily came to him and asked him many questions. 
In those conversations, however, he gradually suc- 
ceeded in making them understand that there was one 
Lord God ; that He was self-existing, one and in three 
persons; how the same God had made the world 
from nothing, and created a man and placed him on 
earth, and called him Adam, from whom all other 
men have sprung; how the same Adam, afterwards, 
by his disobedience had sinned against his Creator, 
and by that sin had involved all his descendants; 
how God sent from heaven upon this earth His only 
Son, Jesus Christ, who was born of the Virgin Mary, 
for the redemption and salvation of all mankind; 
how He died upon the cross, and was raised again 
the third day; and lastly, how after forty days He 
ascended to heaven, whence He will return at a 
future day to judge the quick and the dead," etc. 

It must not be assumed, however, that these In- 
dians were without religious ideas. Campanius even 
believed them to be of Jewish origin, the remnants 
of the ten lost tribes of Israel. In order to establish 
his point, he wrote a long treatise in Latin, where he 
tries, by a comparison of words, to establish an affin- 
ity existing between the Hebrew and the Indian Ian- 

Among the American Indians 29 

guages, in which, however, he signally fails. The 
younger Campanius gives us some details about the 
religious beliefs of the savage tribes. "Altho the 
Indians, being deprived of the Revelation, are unac- 
quainted with the true worship of God, they never- 
theless acknowledge a Supreme Being, a Great Spirit, 
who made the heavens and the earth. They say of 
him in their language, as has been related to me: 
'Opom Saccheman mah matit, mah nijr noton, 
mahorite mah nijr pentor,' which means: 'The great 
Sachem in heaven is not bad; he does us neither good 
nor harm, and therefore, we cannot worship him.' 
Of the evil spirit, they say: 'Manetto matitte . . .,' 
meaning: 'The evil spirit above is bad; if we don't 
do something to please him, he will hurt or kill us; 
therefore, we must worship him'." On that account 
they offered sacrifices to him at definite places in the 
forest. We are also informed that according to 
Landstr^m, a military engineer who had come to 
New Sweden in 1654, the Indians seemed to have 
some notions of Christ. For they told remarkable 
stories, which they claimed to have received by tradi- 
tion from their ancestors. One of them is as fol- 
lows : "Once upon a time (they say), one of your 
women came among us, and she became pregnant, in 
consequence of drinking out of a creek; an Indian 
had connexion with her, and he also became pregnant, 
and brought forth a son; who, when he came to a 
certain size, was so sensible and clever, that there 
never was one who could be compared with him, so 
much and so well he spoke, which excited great 
wonder; he also performed many miracles. When 

30 Lutheran Mission Work 

he was quite grown up, he left us, and went up into 
heaven, and promised to come again, but he never 

The Indians were by no means Indifferent to the 
religious instruction given them by Campanius, for 
"they had great pleasure in hearing these things, at 
which they greatly wondered, and began to think 
quite differently from what they had done before, 
so that he (Campanius) gradually gained their af- 
fection, and they visited and sent to him very fre- 

The attitude assumed by the heathen greatly 
moved Campanius, and he resolutely set to work to 
bring the Gospel to them. To this end he earnestly 
strove to learn their language, in which he seems to 
have been fairly successful. Between the years 
1643-48 he prepared the first knoVvn vocabulary of 
any importance of the Indian tribes on the Delaware, 
with phrases, numerals, and dialogues, being a con- 
venient summary for barnlng the language. He 
went even further. Believing that the heathen 
would hear and read the Word of God if they could 
become acquainted with it, and be converted, he 
translated Luther's Small Catechism, "that store- 
house of true principles of faith," as he styles it, in 
order to make it possible for them to "be partakers 
of the holy truths." Several men better acquainted 
than he with the language on account of longer resi- 
dence in the colony undoubtedly had a share in the 
translation, which in its first draft was probably 
ready in 1648, about the time Eliot, "the morning 
star of missionary enterprise" and the "Apostle of 

Among the American Indians 31 

the Indians," began his labors at Roxberry, Massa- 
chusetts. Eliot's New Testament did not appear un- 
til 1661, the Old Testament being issued three years 
later. Campanius was thus perhaps the first mis- 
sionary among the Indians in this country, and Lu- 
ther's Small Catechism probably the first Protestant 
book translated into the language of the Indians, 
altho it did not appear in print until about half a 
century later. However, even in the region of the 
Delaware, the Roman Catholics had begun their 
labors among the savage tribes before this time. 
But their methods may be inferred from the speech 
of an Indian chief, reported by one of their own mis- 
sionaries, who had this to say about certain co-work- 
ers of his : "As long as we have beaver and other 
skins, the missionaries stay with us and show us 
great friendship; they teach our children their cate- 
chism and how to say their prayers; they constantly 
stay with us, and even do us the honor to partake 
of our feasts; but as soon as we have no more skins, 
then those gentlemen begin to think that their pres- 
ence is no longer necessary." 

We are told that Campanius was very successful 
in his work among the savage tribes, so that "many 
of those barbarians were converted to the Christian 
faith, or, at least, acquired so much knowledge of 
it that they were ready to exclaim, as Captain John 
Smith relates of the Virginia Indians, that so far as 
the cannons and guns of the Christians exceeded the 
bow and arrow of the Indians in shooting, so far 
was their God superior to that of the Indians." Al- 
lowing this to be a roseate view, it was certainly un- 

32 Lutheran Mission ITork 

fortunate for the missionary work, that after only 
a few years of labor Campanius became weary of 
his extensive charge, and in 1647 requested his recall 
in accordance with the promises given at his sailing. 
He proposed that younger men carry on the arduous 
work. The request was granted, and in the follow- 
ing year he returned to Sweden, where he was re- 
warded with the grant of a good charge. The trans- 
lation he carried with him, revised it in Sweden, and 
in 1656 sent it to the king for publication, accom- 
panied by a memorial. But nothing was done about 
it for a long time, altho Campanius lived till 1683, 
dying at the ripe age of eighty-two. 

It does not seem that the missionary work so 
nobly begun, but abandoned by Campanius, was car- 
ried on by the ministers immediately following him. 
However, the friendly relations between the Swedes 
and the Indians continued. This must not be inter- 
preted to mean that the Indians never harbored any 
evil intents. Already at the beginning of the 
Swedish occupation temporarily strained relations, 
leading almost to an outbreak, existed. But trouble 
was averted, and "since that time," the younger 
Campanius continues, "the Swedes and Indians have 
lived together in amity and friendship and carried 
on a friendly intercourse with each other." Under 
Rising, the successor of Printz, the old relationship 
was renewed, for at a conference with the Indians 
in 1654 they were reminded of the former friend- 
ship, and were assured that it would be for their 
mutual benefit to renew the old compact. Any sus- 
picions the Indians might entertain as to the inten- 

Among the American Indians 33 

tlons of the Swedes were groundless. If the tribes 
would agree to draw up and to observe the terms of 
a new contract, the Swedes on their side would keep 
it irrevocably. The natives complained that the 
newcomers had brought much sickness among them. 
After a consultation of the chiefs with their men It 
was finally agreed that the purchase of land should 
remain intact. A defensive league was also made, 
the Indians promising that they would regard the 
enemies of the Swedes as their own and report any 
approaching danger to the best of their ability. 
Then followed a general distribution of presents, 
after which the Indians left well satisfied and in the 
best of humor. 

But Swedish rule In the New World was des- 
tined to be short-lived. In 1655 the Dutch under 
the energetic Stuyvesant took possession of the 
colony, which at that time numbered about seven 
hundred souls. Under the articles of surrender the 
Swedes were allowed to retain their faith, but the 
ministers with the exception of one had to return to 
Sweden. However, Lars Lock, tho after 1677 as- 
sisted by Fabritlus, who became blind in 1682, did 
not find time for missionary work, as serving his 
own countrymen more than taxed his strength. 
After his death, in 1688, the Swedes found them- 
selves entirely dependent upon lay readers and the 
blind and ailing Fabritlus, tho his death did not oc- 
cur till 1696. 

However, help was to come from the mother- 
land to the spiritually destitute kinsmen. In 1690 
a nephew of former governor Printz visited the 

34 Lutheran Mission Work 

New World and took note of their condition. 
After his return to Sweden he discussed the subject 
with J. TheUn, postmaster at Goeteborg, who in- 
formed the king. At royal request Thelm now 
wrote to his countrymen in order to get further de- 
tails. This letter was answered in 1693 by 
Springer, one of the lay readers, who asked his kins- 
men for books and ministers. A fair salary for the 
pastors was promised, the Swedes on the Delaware 
having prospered in worldly affairs. The appeal 
was placed by the king into the hands of Jesper 
Svedberg, the father of the well known and eccentric 
Emanuel Swedenborg. Svedberg, a former court 
preacher and now professor of theology and provost 
of the Cathedral at Upsala, was very much inter- 
ested in the state of affairs that existed in what had 
formerly been New Sweden. Sympathy for the 
heathen moved him no less strongly than that for 
the people of his own blood. And the energetic 
and resourceful man soon found means to relieve 
the spiritual want. When the matter had been sub- 
mitted to him, "that great light of the church," 
Acrelius, the historian of the Swedish settlement, 
tells us, "immediately called to his mind the conver- 
sation which, during his travels, he had had with 
the licentiate of theology, Ezardi, in Hamburg. In 
one of their discussions dealing with the conversion 
of the Jews, Dr. Ezardi had stated how the early 
Christians in that place had in their wills devised 
considerable property for the conversion of the 
heathen; that a large part of this had at the present 
tiriie come into the hands of the Swedish crown, 

Among the American Indians 35 

among the property held by Sweden at Stade, Brem- 
en; that the income of this property had been con- 
verted into stipends to pay the travelling expenses 
of the nobility; as, also, that some who enjoyed the 
benefit of this abused the trust, of which a dissolute 
nobleman, who was then in Hamburg, traveling up- 
on this stipend, was an undeniable example ; that thus 
they who had the benefit of it converted no heathen, 
and so the property was expended in direct contra-: 
riety to the contents of the will. It would therefore 
be much more becoming, as there was no heathen in 
the neighborhood, to apply it to the conversion of 
the Jews." Svedberg suggested to the king that the 
money could be used to good advantage in the New 
World, as there was "now a good opportunity to 
convert the heathen, yea, to see to it that the chil- 
dren of Sweden do not become heathen as they dwell 
among them." 

The appeal of his countrymen, re-enforced by 
Svedberg's suggestions, moved the heart of Charles 
XI. Accordingly three men were sent to look after 
the spiritual needs of the Swedish brethren, who 
should also take up the work among the Indians. 
In his will Rev. John Campanius had expressed the 
wish, that his translation of Luther's Catechism be 
sent to America for the benefit of the heathen. 
Moved by this prayer, the king accordingly caused 
the translation, which was still in manuscript, to be 
printed at royal expense, and five hundred copies of 
it were among the other religious books that the 
ministers John Auren, Eric Bj0rck, and Andrew 
Rudman in 1697 brought with them to America. 

( 2. ) 

|)uru man md m^t jm 

Tffaenn Hacquacsfung Sactheemans.chis- 

kt^ctforftrt ^ntec()ifmt ftijcfct om 

I. Chiutte 
Chisbo Simockan. 

^j)et Sorfta i^ubct 

Chiji" marra pyri Hocqusesfungz Sacchec- 
man cahortamen. 

bar ()aftDa f6r mig* 

C/j^^o pxnror chijr juni ? Rue. 
Ni)i- fiihwijvanRenappi , hatte Nisfiaa- 
nus h^s!'l^as^e , mocluj.nijr quinkijnamen 
jiuni mochijnck Saccheeman , Hocquis- 
fungz \\uinxx. MANETTO, tahoctamen, 
pyn, cheko Hocqussfung ock Hacking 
hacte , ock ni;r pactOn (iihv^ijvan nijre 
Noocon ock cheko nijr pacnror , thaan 
I'lnnar mxu)<n\ Vinckan MANETTO h«a. 

<?)uni forfiar tut^uta ? ©ag. 

ver/To. Q2jt (\Ua mmniftiev j ffole f;afnja 
I en 

Reproduction of a page from Campaiiius 

Translated from Luther's Catechism into the Language of the 

Uelaivare Indiana. 



Among the American Indians 37 

Several copies of the edition of 1696 have come 
down to us, there being for instance one in the libra- 
ry of Augustana College and Seminary, Rock Island, 
111., one in the University of Pennsylvania, etc. A 
brief description of the book will be of interest. It 
is a small volume 4x6^ inches, bound in stout calf- 
skin. The cover bears the impression of a double 
C, the royal initials, surmounted by the Swedish 
crown. The title page, in addition to the royal 
arms of Sweden, has the following inscription : 
Lutheri Catechismus, "(Z>fwersatt pa American-Vir- 
ginske' Spraket." Stockholm, Trykt vthi thet af 
Kongl. Maytt privileg. Burch'ardi Tryckeri, af 
J. J. Genath f. Anno MDCXCVL, which Is in 
English : Luther's Catechism, translated into the 
American-Virginian language. Stockholm, printed 
with permission of his Royal Majesty by J. J. Gen- 
ath, Jr., at Burchard's press. A. D. 1696. A 
quaint map of New Sweden, dated 1654, is folded 
in after the title page. It shows Delaware bay and 
river, gives names of settlements, and indicates by 
small pictures what animals inhabit the woods, 
where the plantations are, and where the Indian 
settlements are located. This is followed by an 
introduction of fourteen pages. It takes the place 
of the original preface of Campanius, portions of 
which are quoted. The introduction gives a brief 
history of the translation and discusses the evangel- 
ization of the heathen in general and of the Indians 
in particular, a description of the colonists and the 
land being included. Passages of the Sagas are 
quoted in order to prove the discovery of America 

38 Lutheran Mission Work 

in the 10th century by Norsemen. Then comes the 
Catechism proper. The Indian translation, which is 
often a paraphrase accompanied by explanatory 
questions and answers, comes first, followed, para- 
graph by paragraph, by a Swedish version. Where- 
ever there are marked differences in the Indian and 
the Swedish statements, the Swedish version of Lu- 
ther's Small Catechism follows. The Catechism 
begins thus: "The Catechism which contains the 

sum and substance of the Holy Scriptures 

Thus shall your children, sons and daughters, man 
servants and maid servants, together with all other 
persons, give all diligence to learn the Ten Com- 
mandments of the Lord, our God." The first com- 
mandment is thus explained : "We and all men must 
have a childlike fear, yea, it must be our pleasure to 
love this powerful God more than anything con- 
tained in heaven or upon earth, and we must place 
all our trust and confidence upon this our merciful 
God alone." All the other parts of the Catechism 
are explained with the same simplicity, showing that 
Campanius knew how to condescend to the under- 
standing of the Indian. In all 126 pages are occu- 
pied by the Catechism. This is followed by a 
vocabulary of the Delaware language (Vocabular- 
ium Barbaro-Virginiorum) of 30 pages, including a 
very brief vocabulary of the tribes of the Minques, 
who were on especially good terms with the Swedes. 
On the whole, the task was creditably performed. 
It is true, Mr. Peter S. Du Ponceau, on the author- 
ity of Mr. Heckewelder, in his Notes and Observa- 
tions on Eliot's Indian Grammar, charges Campan- 

Among the American Indians 39 

lus with many blunders, probably due to the ignor- 
ance of traders who were his helpers." "He trans- 
lates the words 'Gracious God' by Sweet Manitto; 
but the word vinckan, (it should have been wingan) 
by which he attempts to express sweet, is one which 
in the Delaware language is only applied to eat- 
ables; so that the sense which he conveys to an 
Indian, is that of O sweet tasted Manitto ! Yet no 
language is richer in suitable appellations for the 
Deity. In the same manner, when he means to ex- 
press the verb 'to love' in a divine sense, he uses the 
word tahottamen, applicable only to the liking which 
men have for perishable things, when he had eholan, 
from the substantive ahol-lowagan (love), which it 
is most probable he was not acquainted with." That 
Campanius' translation is not absolutely accurate, 
and that he misunderstood and misconstrued the 
Indian language in several particulars, may readily 
be admitted. But one should remember that he 
was a pioneer and did not have at. his disposal such 
expert assistance as Eliot. And as the book was 
printed after the translator's death, by men who 
very likely knew absolutely nothing about the lan- 
guage, it was inevitable that quite a number of mis- 
takes should creep in. But this does not materially 
detract from the great value of Campanius' work. 
That the newly sent missionaries had not for- 
gotten their duty towards the natives will be seen 
from a letter written by Rev. Bjjzirck October 29, 
1697. Interesting as showing the relations between 
the Swedes and the Indians, we quote : "The Indians 
and we are as one people; we live in much greater 

40 Lutheran Mission fVork 

friendship with them than with the English: they 
call the Swedes, in their language, their own people; 
they were very glad when we came, as they now see 
that Sweden does not abandon them." From a mis- 
sionary standpoint even more illuminatmg is the 
following passage: "They are also very fond of 
learning the catechism, which has been printed in 
their language; they like to have it read to them, 
and they have engaged Mr. Charles Springer to 
teach their children to read it. Who knows what 
God has yet in store for them, if our lives should be 
spared, when we shall have acquired their idiom? 
We shall spare no labor to attain that object." 

Efforts to penetrate into the interior and to 
preach the Gospel to the Indians were also made. 
In 1699 Auren, who had meanwhile become a Sab- 
batarian, undertook the task, in which he was aided 
by an interpreter. His experiences are related in a 
booklet entitled Dissertatio Gradualis De Planta- 
tione Ecclesiae Svecanae in America, which Tobias 
Bj0rk, son of Eric, published in 1731 at Upsala. 
Auren attended a meeting of Indians at Canistowa 
(Conestoga region in Lancaster Co., Pa.) twenty- 
five years before white men settled there, and pre- 
vailed upon them to forsake their heathen religion 
and to embrace Christianity. Thru an interpreter, 
an Indian skillfully answered his appeal and argu- 
ments. The substance of that speech we have re- 
corded in Latin on pages 30-34 of the booklet, as 
Auren impressed it upon his memory and soon after- 
wards committed it to writing, transmitting it under 
date of Jan. 13, 1699-1700, to Eric Bj0rck. In 

Among the American Indians 41 

speaking of revelation, the Indian claimed that God 
doubtless exercised sufficient care to illuminate the 
Indians and make possible their salvation. If Auren 
affirmed their opinion regarding this and other 
points, his proposition would be unnecessary; if he 
contradicted it, that would be absurd, and they 
would not listen to him. Should he propose addi- 
tional facts, which were unknown to them, but prov- 
ed acceptable, they would gladly entertain them. 

No results followed from this sporadic effort and 
the pious wishes of the other ministers. The rea- 
son given by Acrelius, himself one of the Swedish 
ministers on the Delaware and the historian of the 
settlements, will furnish a sufficient explanation : 
"But yet the object was never obtained, partly be- 
cause the ministers had always so much to do among 
their widely scattered congregations that they had 
no time for anything else." The other reason given 
by him carries little weight. He claims that the 
letter R, r, which the book uses, is not found in the 
language of the Indians, but L, 1, in the place of R, 
r, ascribing the mistake to the editor of the cate- 
chism, who mistook the letter 1 for r in the manu- 
script. But it is more probable that some of the 
Delaware tribes made use of the sound r where 
others employed 1, which was not uncommon among 
different tribes of the same Indian nation. 

Only a few isolated references to missionary 
work among the Indians follow the letter of Bj0rck 
and the preaching of Auren in the interior. We are 
told, for instance, that A. Hesselius, a nephew of 
Svedberg and successor to Bj0rck, during his service 

42 Lutheran Mission Work 

between 1713-23, expended a great deal of labor 
in the conversion of the heathen, who, at that time, 
were frequently seen among the Swedes. But little 
was accomplished. At one time a young boy was 
induced to live at the minister's house, where Hes- 
selius instructed him thru the medium of English 
in the principal doctrines of Christianity, and finally 
baptized him. The son of the forest, however, 
soon returned to his kin, preferring the charms of 
nature to the refinements of civilization. 

Thus came to an end what might have developed 
Into a successful mission among the Indians, had en- 
ergetic and methodical efforts been made, or the 
promising beginning of Campanius been followed up. 
The political change that lost Sweden the newly 
acquired colony doubtless had some effect upon the 
missionary activities, but even if the political factor 
be excluded. It seems hardly probable that a thriving 
mission would have been established, since the cus- 
tom of recalling the Swedish ministers after a num- 
ber of years and often rewarding them with opulent 
parishes was not favorable to an enterprise that de- 
manded constant and unwearied labor and sacrifices 
extending over many years. Fruits there were, 
but these in accordance with the effort expended. In 
proportion to and in keeping with the sporadic and 
unsustained activities put forth. 

Chapter II 


T^OR a time it seemed as if missionary work might 
-*- be undertaken in the South by the Lutheran Salz- 
burgers, whom Catholic persecution had forced to 
leave their country. Salzburg, bordering on Ba- 
varia, is a German speaking district of Austria. 
Tho Austria as a whole remained firmly Catholic 
, at the time of the Reformation, the new doctrines 
found a fertile soil among the miners and farmers of 
Salzburg. The peace of Westphalia after the Thir- 
ty Years' War nominally guaranteed also to them 
liberty of conscience and their own form of worship. 
However, when in time large numbers of Lutherans 
were discovered among the supposedly Catholic 
people, the spirit of intolerance made Its presence 
felt. Affairs reached a crisis under Archbishop 
Count Firmian, who was determined to extirpate the 
Lutheran heresy. He placed all Protestants before 
the alternative of becoming Roman Catholics or of 
leaving the country. In the latter case the minor 
children would remain in Salzburg and be brought 
up as Roman Catholics. Thus in the winter of 1731 
began the expulsion of these pious Christians 
who for the sake of their belief were willing to suf- 
fer untold hardships. The Lutherans of Germany 
received them with open arms, and the king of Prus- 
sia settled about 20,000 of these exiles in his eastern 
provinces, where they became loyal citizens and pros- 
pered in material and spiritual affairs. 

A few of these Salzburg emigrants found their 

44 Lutheran Mission Work 

way into other countries, such as Holland and Amer- 
ica. Dr. Samuel Urlsperger of Augsburg, who as 
former court preacher at London had close relations 
with the Lutheran reigning house of England, was 
instrumental in securing for a small number homes 
in Georgia. The Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel bore a large part of the expense inci- 
dental to their removal there, and Governor James 
Oglethorpe took, a personal interest in these brave 
Lutheran exiles. Under the leadership of John 
Boltzius and Israel Gronau, their two ministers fur- 
nished by Halle, the emigrants set out and in 1734 
established a colony twenty-five miles from Savan- 
nah, which in gratitude to God they named Ebenezer. 
There these men of sterling quality, guided by their 
efficient leaders, greatly prospered in a material as 
well as a spiritual sense. They were loyal subjects 
of the colony and later firm defenders of American 
freedom, for which not a few made the supreme 

The conversion of the native heathen had been 
contemplated from the first, Boltzius and Gronau 
receiving specific instruction to that effect. A splen- 
did opportunity to engage in missionary work also 
offered itself, for in the neighborhood of the colony 
there lived about 8,000 Cherokees, a tribe which 
we shall have occasion to meet later in the state of 
Oklahoma. It was the intention of the leaders to 
carry out their instructions as soon as feasible, and 
only a short time after their landing Governor Ogle- 
thorpe refers to the desire expressed by the min- 
isters to erect a stone memorial of God's deliverance 

Among the American Indians 45 

and of His having brought them to the end of the 
earth, where they might praise God in perfect free- 
dom and become a light unto the heathen. 

In the diary of Boltzius and the letters of both 
ministers many occasional references to the Indians 
are found. Thus we read in a letter of Boltzius to 
Prof. Francke in Halle, dated Savannah, March 23, 
1734, only a few days after their arrival: "At pres- 
ent we are with our followers in the newly built city 
of Savannah in Georgia, and do not yet know def- 
initely how many or what Indians we shall have as 
our next neighbors. But this much we have been 
told by Mr. Oglethorpe that there are very many 
Indians in the colony, and that many of them might 
be benefited. May God help and guide us! Our 
congregation is very small and, thank God, in a 
splendid condition. And thus the Father gives 
us, as it were, an indication how we may best utilize 
our spare time, namely, to increase this white Euro- 
pean flock with a few dark Indians cleansed in the 
blood of Christ, and to prepare ourselves both 
bodily and spiritually for this very important work. 
It seems impossible to acquire the Indian language 
from the natives. But we have been informed that 
a few white Christians have married Indian women, 
and have acquired the language thru such associa- 
tion. Such men might be the means of reaching the 
desired object." 

However, soon these pious wishes began to fade 
away, as the following quotation from the diary of 
Boltzius under date of July 9, 1735, shows: "A 
few Indians arrived from Savannah, where they had 
received presents, and tomorrow they intend to con- 

46 Lutheran Mission IFork 

tlnue the journey to their mountain home. Six or 
them paid me a visit, and they not only made a very 
favorable outward impression, but were also very 
friendly and respectable. Whenever I see such 
poor heathens here, a strong desire is re-awakened 
in me for an opportunity to learn their language. 
However, anyone acquainted with our present sit- 
uation and duties will readily see the almost insuper- 
able obstacles. If one would accomplish something 
for the benefit of the heathen, he must needs have a 
special call, so as not to be hindered in the acquisi- 
tion of the language and the association with them 
by other pastoral work." 

The same thoughts, plainly indicating that no en- 
ergetic efforts will be undertaken, re-occur in a letter 
of Boltzius and Gronau to Prof. Francke, dated 
Ebenezer, January 8, 1736: "In regard to the 
heathen we can at present do nothing more than to 
pray for them fervently, to give them a good ex- 
ample, and to show them true love whenever they 
pay us one of their rare visits. If in accordance with 
God's will and that of our benefactors one of us were 
to learn the Indian language, he would have to be 
relieved of the ordinary pastoral duties at Eben- 
ezer, in order that he might be enabled not only to 
learn the language, but also to visit the Indian vil- 
lages. Altho the men absent themselves for weeks 
and even months on hunting trips, their wives and 
children are said to remain at home, so that schools 
and other benevolent institutions could be main- 
tained. Here men, women, and children roam in 
the woods, in a similar miserable condition as the 

Among the American Indians 47 

Gipsies in Germany. They also indulge very much 
in the drinking of whiskey and lead an immoral life, 
the opportunity being furnished by the Christians. 
If one had a special call for the heathen farther re- 
moved, and could secure a pious school teacher, 
with God's help he might possibly accomplish some- 
thing in time." 

Thus the relations with the Indians were cordial 
at first. The natives were willing to be instructed 
in the knowledge of the Supreme Being and to send 
their children to the Christian school at Ebenezer. 
But nothing definite was undertaken and no results 
followed. In 1799 one of the ministers of the col- 
ony in viewing the former ambitious plans com- 
plains : "The purpose in founding Ebenezer was 
really to establish in time a mission among the 
neighboring tribes. And with God's help the hopes 
would have been realized, if they had not turned 
their attention to so many other things." The 
colonists became indifferent toward the Indians, and 
even treated them discourteously and unjustly. 
Thus the basic qualities for doing missionary work 
were wholly lacking, as the Salzburgers themselves 
degenerated spiritually, so that the afore-mentioned 
minister at the close of the century could write : 
"The Lutheran Church is here in America, at least 
in the South, to all outward appearances the most 
corrupt. It is not in a position to reprove the 
Catholics, who in spite of all their superstitious 
ceremonies maintain at least outward discipline." 

In the North no systematic efforts at conversion 
were made at this particular time, altho Indians 

48 Lutheran Mission IFork 

now and then attended Lutheran services. Ex- 
ceedingly close relations, however, existed in a num- 
ber ot instances. The lite of Conrad Weiser, jr., 
is of special interest in this respect. At the age of 
seventeen he was adopted by an Indian chief and 
for eight months lived among the tribe. He won 
the complete confidence of the Indians, and from 
1732-60 was at the head of the Indian Bureau of 
the colonial government of Pennsylvania. Abso- 
lutely trusted by both parties, this man of sterhng 
worth, who was a convinced Lutheran most of his 
life, tho for a time led astray by the Sabbatarians, 
rendered many a service to his fellow Christians. 
He doubtless exerted also some religious influence 
upon the Indians. The great Patriarch of the Ameri- 
can Lutheran Church, Henry Melchior Muehlen- 
berg, married his daughter Anna, and became very 
much interested in the natives. However, the great 
and pressing work of gathering thousands of un- 
churched Lutherans into congregations and of or- 
ganizing the Church left him no time for mission- 
ary labors among the Indians. 

Only toward the end of the century some feeble 
attempts at bringing the Gospel to the heathen were 
made. In 1790 the Rev. A. T. Braun of Treves, 
who had worked as Roman Catholic missionary a- 
mong the Indians, embraced the Lutheran faith, 
and later offered all his linguistic knowledge toward 
the Christianization of the natives. Dr. Kunze, 
one of the leading ministers, communicated with 
Halle and also asked President Washington for fed- 
eral support. Washington answered that the 

Among the American Indians 49 

granting of an appropriation was solely in the hands 
of congress. Kunze now drew up an elaborate plan 
tor a mission, placing the budget at one thousand 
bpanish dollars, but nothing came of the matter, as 
no federal aid was obtained. 

Another effort of a more substantial character 
centering around one man might have borne fruit. 
It was an ambitious plan conceived by an eccentric, 
but devout Lutheran minister, the Rev. John 
Christopher Hartwig. Tho his pious designs for 
the conversion of the heathen were not carried out, 
the efforts resulted in the estabhshment of Hartwick 
Seminary, the oldest Lutheran theological school in 
America. The salient features of the noble en- 
deavor merit closer attention. 

Mr. Hartwig was born January 6, 1714, in Saxe 
Gotha, Germany. Of his childhood, youth, and edu- 
cation no authentic record remains. But he un- 
doubtedly received a very thoro classical training, 
as his extant Latin compositions prove. After the 
completion of his university studies he was connected 
for a short time with the institution of Dr. Callen- 
berg in Hamburg for the conversion of the Jews. 
Having received a call as pastor of St. Peter's 
Lutheran Church at Rhinebeck, New York, he was 
ordained by the two pastors af the Savoy Church 
and the pastor of the Swedish Lutheran Church in 
London. In 1746 we find him in his parish at 
Rhinebeck. In a codicil to his will he himself says 
that he was "sent hither a missionary preacher of 
the Gospel upon the petition and call of some Pala- 
tine congregations in the Counties of Albany and 

50 Lutheran Mission fFork 

Dutchess." During the French and Indian War 
he seems to have been the chaplain of a German regi- 

Rev. Hartwig remained twelve years at Rhine- 
beck, which was probably his only settled pastorate. 
Later he visited widely separated churches, preach- 
ing here and there and giving important counsel 
not only in spiritual, but also in temporal affairs. 
Rev. Hartwig was never married, and therefore un- 
fettered in the important work as itinerant minister 
and healer of dissensions. "Many instances of his 
traditional eccentricities grew out of his celibate 
state. Dr. Jacobs recites a tradition that his visits 
were dreaded by domestics because of his excessively 
long prayers at family worship, and local tradition 
charges him with being a regular woman-hater. It 
it said that once on a visit to this neighborhood he 
was shown to his lodgings in a chamber which con- 
tained some articles of female wearing apparel. 
On discovering this fact he is said to have fled thru 
a window and sought more safe and congenial quar- 

However, this eccentric man was devout, de- 
voted to his duty, and filled with holy zeal for the 
preaching of the Gospel. His character is ex- 
hibited by the fact that he was on intimate terms 
with the Patriarch Muehlenberg, whom he occasion- 
ally visited, and whose visits he received in return. 
At one time Muehlenberg travelled 210 miles on 
horseback in order to pay his friend a visit and 
stayed with him a full month, clear evidence of the 
esteem in which he held him. 

Among the American Indians 51 

Hartwig's great love of people also included 
the Indian, and not long after his arrival in America 
he conceived an ambitious plan for the conversion 
of the natives. As early as 1753, while still located 
at Rhinebeck, he secured, for a consideration named 
as one hundred pounds, an Indian deed, executed 
at "Canajoharie, 1753, May 23." The grant calls 
for a "certain tract of vacant land, Scituate, lying 
and being, on the South Side of the Mohawks river, 
between Schoharrie and Cherry Valley, along a cer- 
tain small Creek: containing nine miles in length and 
four miles in breadth." However, as Hartwig had 
not obtained royal consent thru Governor Clinton, 
the grant came to nought. A royal license was now 
obtained, and a second deed drawn up under date 
of May 29, 1754, the consideration named being 
again one hundred pounds. "This latter tract was 
not the same as the first, but is described as being 
'on the west side of the Susquehanna and running 
along said river six miles and extending in breadth 
from the said river into the woods six miles.' It 
was supposed that this tract cornered on Otsego 
Lake where the river issues therefrom, but that 
was afterwards found to be a mistake. The tract 
was substantially the present town of Hartwick. 
The petition was for :i;4,000 acres, the deed called 
for 23,040, but a survey made later accounts for 21,- 

During Rev. Hartwig's lifetime no direct efforts 
for the conversion of the heathen were undertaken. 
At his death at the ripe age of over eighty-two 
years, on July 17, 1796, he left his estate for the 

i2 Lutheran Mission fVork 

erection of a "Gymnasium Evangeitcum Minister- 
tale pro propagatione Evangelico Christianae Reli- 
gionis inter Gentiles." In his eccentric will he says: 
"Having been hindered by unfavorable times and 
circumstances to put Thy will (i. e. the Savior's) 

and my design sooner in execution I must 

transfer this my trust to others," etc., his plan in- 
cluding the education "of the ignorant, ungospel- 
ized part of mankind of whatsover state, color or 
complexion in the Christian religion, ac- 
cording to a plan and method to be annexed to this 
instrument" (i. e. the will). "I there ordain," says 
he, "that it is chiefly the enabling, preparing, and 
qualifying proper persons in respect to their age, 
constitution of their bodies and minds, and attain- 
ments in learning, or knowledge of the instrumental 
literature such as generally are taught in American 
colleges," etc. "Whenever," he continues, "there 
shall be no more occasion for missionaries to red 
or black heathens, or the revenue of my estate will 
bear it, the compass of instruction may be enlarged 
to catechetical instruction, and If after that Provi- 
dence should provide sufficient means also to classi- 
cal learning, but no heathen authors shall ever be 
allowed to be taught in this institution to stain the 
mind of youths," etc. 

Thus there seemed to be a large endowment for 
specifically missionary purposes. But events 
proved that the estate was much smaller than one 
had leason to believe. At one time Hartwig owned 
about 21,000 acres of land, but this had dwindled 
down considerably. When Hartwig was an old 

Among the American Indians 53 

man, he employed as his agent Judge William 
Cooper, father of James Fenimore Cooper, the 
novelist of Leatherstocking fame. Contrary to 
the manifest intention of Hartwig, the agent sold 
the land at about $1.75 per acre, so that in 1796 no 
land of the original patent was left. Of Hartwig's 
whole estate less than 3,000 acres remained. "But 
what had become of the proceeds of the previous 
sales? This seems to be an illustration of the anec- 
dote which runs somewhat after this fashion: 'Two 
men, A and B, entered into partnership. A put in 
all the capital, and B put in his experience. At the 
end of the year B had the capital and A the exper- 
ience.' Mr. Hartwick no doubt had some exper- 
ience,''^ tho it is charitable to believe that he never 
knew in what condition his affairs were. The fact 
remains that thru the mismanagement or fraud of 
the agent the greater portion of the property dis- 
appeared. Some may be inclined to find in the 
trouble over the right of the public to use part of 
the Cooper estate fronting Otsego Lake as a picnic 
ground, which darkened the later years of the great 
novelist, the evidence of a just retribution and poetic 
justice ! 

It seems that afterwards practically half of the 
estate was lost thru the activities of one of the ad- 
ministrators, so that the proceeds from the sale of 
land amounted to not more than $15,612.95. To 
administer the estate according to the will of the 
eccentric Hartwig proved well nigh impossible. 
Aided by a special act of the legislature, the execu- 
tors tried to carry out the spirit of the will. At this 
time, the Indians had left that section of the country. 


Lutheran Mission ff'ork 

and the thousands of unchurched Lutherans claimed 
the attention of the ecclesiastical leaders. So when 
the executioners and others met in New York City 
on September 15, 1797, it was decided to found a 
theological and missionary seminary. Of the 

Hartwick Seminary, Otsego Co., N. Y. 

elected faculty, Rev. J. F. Ernst was to move to 
Cooperstown, there to train the younger pupils; 
Rev. A. T. Braun at Albany had the classical depart- 
ment under his charge; while Dr. J. C. Kunze was 
the theological professor at New York. Under 
this arrangement a number of ministers were 
trained. After some ineffectual attempts to locate 
the proposed institution, Hartwick Seminary was 
finally opened in 1815 in its own building in Otsego 
Co. Founded by Rev. Hartwig's endowment, bear- 
ing his name, and standing on the ground once owned 
by the pioneer Lutheran minister, the institution 
has a history of no mean achievement, tho it has not 
become a school for missionaries in the narrower 

Chapter III 



THE beginning of the Indian mission among tiie 
Chippewas in Michigan goes back to Rev. F. 
Schmid, the founder and first president of the Michi- 
gan Synod. Born in 1807 at Walddorf, Wuerttem- 
berg, he had received his theological training in the 
Protestant mission school at Basel, Switzerland. 
In response to an urgent call of former Wuerttem- 
bergers he was sent to Michigan in 1833, and as first 
Lutheran pastor of that state worked with great 
zeal and success in Ann Arbor and vicinity. 

While Rev. Schmid's main efforts were directed 
toward preaching the Gospel to the unchurched 
Germans and the organization of congregations, he 
took a deep interest in the heathen Indians. And 
soon steps for their Christianization were taken. 
Tangible evidence of this is found in the minutes of 
the Minis terium of Pennsylvania for the year 1840, 
where reference is made to "a letter from Brother 
Frederick Schmidt in Ann Arbor in the state of 
Michigan, in which he expresses his joy concerning 
our labors in the missionary field, and makes many 
proposals which may be calculated to promote the 
missionary work, and to awaken the missionary 

Partly as a result of these suggestions a mission- 
ary society was founded in 1842, which had as one 

56 Lutheran Mission Work 

of its objects the support of the Indian mission be- 
gun by Rev. Schmid. In the minutes of 1844, in 
the transactions of this missionary society, there is 
"a letter from Rev. F. Schmidt, Ann Arbor, Michi- 
gan, in which he states that by reason of the energy 
of the Missionary Society in the said state, the mis- 
sionary has been sent to labor among the Indians. 
He requests the co-operation of our Society in the 
evangelizing of the Indians." This letter was read, 
and it was "resolved that the Executive Committee 
be authorized to transmit to the Missionary Society 
of Michigan the sum of $50 for Indian Missions 
provided the state of the treasury will bear it." In 
the next year the missionary society decided that the 
Indian mission be recommended also for the present 
year if the necessary means are at hand. 

Meanwhile a mission had been established at 
Sebewaing, Huron Co., which held out promises of 
great success. In the biography of Rev. Schm'J, 
written by his son, we read the following: "In the 
spring of 1845 three missionaries, Auch, Dumser, 
and Sinke were sent to the Indians at Sebewaing. 
Early in the morning three wagons halted before the 
parsonage, the neighbors appeared, and loaded the 
wagons with provisions, furniture, clothing, etc., 
which the congregation had contributed. When 
that work was finished, the cause of the mission was 
entrusted to God with song and prayer. As the 
party began its journey, we accompanied it with our 

eyes until it disappeared from view It was 

no easy matter to travel the 125 miles leading thru 
the primeval forest and the swamps." 

Among the American Indians 57 

For a number of years the Pennsylvania society 
continued its support of the mission, in 1847 a letter 
being read from Rev. F. Schmid, "in which he ex- 
presses his obligations to our society for appropriat- 
ing the sum of $100 to the mission among the Indi- 
ans." In 1848 the Missionary Society reported 
that it had sent $125 to Brother Schmidt "who is 
laboring faithfully in the vineyard of the Lord, 
and who was much encouraged by this gift. The 
Committee hears that deep and abiding impressions 
have been made upon the neighboring Indian tribes 
by the mission. Rev. Schmidt writes, 'These heath- 
en are beginning to receive the Word in humility 
and the salvation of their souls is being cared for. 
Many have already united with our Church, and we 
have reason to believe that they will remain stead- 
fast in their faith. Our mission school is in a flour- 
ishing condition. Eighteen scholars are now In the 
mission house, which has made encouraging prog- 
ress in the various branches of learning, but particu- 
larly in the knowledge of the doctrine of Jesus. 
Six of these scholars, after previous Instruction, and 
according to their own desire, have been received 
into the fellowship of the Church thru Holy Bap- 
tism. It is indeed encouraging to note that these 
scholars leave heathenism in their early youth and 
return to the Shepherd and Bishop of their souls. 
Yes, dear brethren, our prayers and labors for the 
Indians are not in vain. Jesus Christ hears our 
supplication and to Him alone be the glory." Fur- 
ther remarks about the mission, its decline and fail- 
ure, will be made in connection with the Bethany 


Lutheran Mission JVork 

Indian Mission of Loehe and the Missouri Synod, 
to which we now turn our attention. 

Rev. Wilhelm Loehe of Neuendettelsau -in 
Bavaria, noted for his efforts in building up the 
Lutheran Church in America and for his inner mis- 

Wilhelm Loehe 

sion work, was very much interested in the Indians 
and one of the best friends the Red Man has ever 
had. He urged the "emergency men" sent out by 
him to obtain information about the feasibility of 

Among the American Indians 59 

a mission among the heathen natives. We cite 
from the instruction given to W. Hattstaedt, who 
emigrated in 1843 and brought the work of the 
Michigan Synod to the attention of Loehe. In par- 
agragh 16 he is requested to communicate during 
his proposed trip to the West with the "Saxons" in 
Missouri, and among other things we have men- 
tioned that he "receive their suggestions in regard 
to the American heathen tribes." Paragraph 19 
reads: "In particular endeavor to find out what 
Lutheran, respectively German-Lutheran, congre- 
gations have been organized among or in the neigh- 
borhood of heathen Indian tribes, and consult with 
the brethren named in paragraph 16 regarding our 
desire to have pastors and missionaries in one per- 
son." Paragraph 20 : "You are requested to gain 
detailed information concerning the missionaries of 
different denominations who are laboring among 
the heathen Indians, and to investigate what our 
brethren of the household of faith have done for 
those tribes, and how we ourselves might co-operate 
with already established Indian missions. One 
might perhaps learn considerably from the Mor- 
avian missions, to which you will kindly direct your 

The proposed trip to the West was not made, 
for Hattstaedt settled as pastor in Monroe, Michi- 
gan, where Rev. Schmid had laid the foundation. 
Thus he became acquainted with the missionary 
labors of the Michigan Synod and sent detailed in- 
formation about the promising work to Loehe, at 
the same time suggesting that his own efforts might 

60 I.Hlheran Mission fVork 

be more successful if joined with those of the Lu- 
therans already settled there. 

Rev. Loehe, always willing to co-operate with 
other Lutherans, e\idently was satisfied that such an 
arrangement with the Michigan Synod would pro- 
vide an excellent opportunity to begin energetic 
work looking toward the Christianlzation of the 
Indians. At first it was planned to open a seminary 
for the training of missionaries, but this was speed- 
ily abandoned and the planting of a colony among 
the Indians substituted. It was thought that the 
testimony of a Christian life would greatly aid in 
the conversion of the Indians, who would thus view 
Christianity in its application, and the converted 
might be induced to try settled life. A result of 
these plans was the establishment of Frankenmuth 
(Courage of the Franks, or Bavarians) on the Sag- 
inaw river in 1845. The colonists who were will- 
ing to make such an experiment were mainly young 
peasants and mechanics from the neighborhood of 

The choice of the leader of the missionary settle- 
ment was a happy one. Friedrich August Craemer 
had passed his thirty-second year when in 1844 he 
offered his services to Loehe. After completing 
his university education he had been for a time tutor 
In Saxony and England, where at the University of 
Oxford he held a professorship, until the opposition 
of this man of strong character and Iron will to the 
Puseyites made his position untenable. His "per- 
fect knowledge" of English also would prove very 
valuable In approaching the Indians. When in the 

Among the American Indians 


spring of 1845 the organization of the colonists had 
been perfected by the adoption of an elaborate con- 
stitution governing their congregational affairs, 
Craemer was elected as their pastor and leader. 

On May 20, 1845, the colonists sailed from 
Bremerhaven and landed fifty days later at New 

Friedrich August Craemer 

York. On July 17th they reached Monroe, Michi- 
gan, where Rev. Hattstaedt and his congregation 
welcomed them heartily. Rev. Schmid and mis- 
sionary Auch also proved to be of great assistance 
in making the settlement. The place selected was 
135 miles from Monroe to the north in the neigh- 
borhood of Saginaw City. The colonists went to 
Saginaw just as soon as possible and made it their 
headquarters until the purchase of a tract of 680 
acres for $1,700 had been concluded. The begin 

62 Lutheran Mission ff'ork 

ning of Frankenmuth is interestingly told by Prof. 
Th. Graebner in his pamphlet entitled The Bavarian 
Settlements of the Saginaw Valley, from which we 

"Soon after their arrival in Saginaw, Pastor 
Craemer, accompanied by some of his men and a 
surveyor, struck out for the primeval forest to in- 
spect the land which had been recommended to them, 
and to have it surveyed. They travelled sixteen 
miles cross-country from Saginaw, partly over 
marshy ground. Dense woods covered the entire 
countryside. There stood the ancient giants of the 
forests, among them a thick underbrush which had 
been visited by no human foot except when the red 
huntsman had penetrated these fastnesses in order 
to track the wolf, the bear, and the deer. 

"Where now is situated the old cemetery of the 
Frankenmuth congregation, the first blows of the ax 
were heard. This was probably in the month of 
August (1845). While the women remained in 
Saginaw, the men would set forth on Monday morn- 
ings with their tools, in order, first of all, to clear a 
piece of ground on which it was the intention to 
build two log-houses. After the unaccustomed 
labor the men would rest their weary members on 
rude bedding spread under a temporary shelter of 
boughs and branches. The pastor regularly led 
morning and evening devotions. Finally the huts 
were ready for occupancy. The 'Company Hut' 
was thirty feet In length, and was to strve as a shel- 
ter for the five couples and the two single men. 
The other log-house was Intended for the pastor's 

Among the American Indians 63 

family and also for the conduct of divine services. 
There were doors in it, but no windows. The roof 
was not rain-proof, and during the frequent down- 
pours tables and umbrellas had to be employed to 
keep the bedding dry. Nevertheless it was a shel- 
ter sufficient for the most urgent needs. Now the 
women, the baggage, and all household goods were 
loaded on ox-carts, and the trip from Saginaw to 
Frankenmuth was successfully accomplished." 

The real purpose in planting the colony was not 
forgotten. Seventy acres of land was set apart for 
the benefit of the mission. Already in Saginaw the 
colonists had made the acquaintance of Chippewa 
Indians, and as soon as the colony was established 
and Craemer's health permitted, the missionary 
took energetic steps to bring the Gospel to the Indi- 
an village twenty miles away. He was fortunate 
in securing the services of Jim Gruet, a half-blood 
of French-Canadian extraction, who acted as his 
interpreter. Beginning with the spring of 1846, 
regular visits were also made to the Kakawlin, 
Swan, Chippewa, Pine, and Bell rivers. Some of 
these places were from fifty to seventy miles from 
Frankenmuth, and the trips generally had to be 
made on foot. In time three main preaching places 
were visited once a month. The hardships endured 
during all kinds of weather in the trackless forest 
and the wigwams may easily be imagined, and sev- 
eral times the missionary nearly lost his life in cross- 
ing Saginaw Bay. Craemer also tried to induce the 
Indians to settle at Frankenmuth, but only one man 

64 Lutheran Mission Work 

with his children and grandchildren, the medicine 
man Old Jim, accepted the invitation. 

Naturally Rev. Craemer paid special attention 
to the children, for if the Indians could be induced 
to entrust them to his care, the adults would in turn 
be influenced. In this he was successful. The in- 
fluential chief Bemasslkeh was the first to comply 
with the missionary's request and turned his two 
sons over to him. When some time later he hon- 
ored his "friend" with a visit of ten days, the num- 
ber of pupils increased to five. Later five addition- 
al children were secured thru the co-operation of 
Sauaban, another chief. The ice being once 
broken, others followed, so that in 1846, one year 
after the establishment of Frankenmuth, the mis- 
sionary had thirty children under his care. 

What labor the instruction and supervision of 
these children of nature involved, may readily be 
imagined! The sympathetic help of Mrs. Craemer 
was here of Inestimable value. She herself has told 
us of her experiences with these savages. A thoro 
cleaning was the first number on the program. 
Then a suitable dress had to be provided. This 
was followed by an elementary course dealing with 
the essentials of civilized customs and table man- 
ners, a course which sometimes extended over a 
long period. And even then success did not always 
crown the efforts, for sometimes the innate love of 
the woods and a life without restraint proved too 
strong, and the Indian boy would seek the native 
camp in spite of parental displeasure. Crowded 
quarters made the situation still more difficult; the 

Among the American Indians 65 

parsonage had to serve at the same time for church 
and school purposes, besides sheltering the family of 
the interpreter. But the unselfish work bore fruit, 
and the missionary and his wife were re-paid by the 
love of the children, who clung to Mrs. Craemer as 
to a mother. When the new church, necessitated thru 
a large increase in the colony during 1846, was dedi- 
cated at Christmas, three Indian children could be 
baptized, receiving the names of Abraham, Magda- 
lene, and Anna. 

Rev. Craemer and his helpmeet looked upon the 
arduous task as a labor of love. This is especially 
seen from a letter which he wrote in 1848 to the 
"Lutheraner," a church paper published in St. Louis. 
In this report he speaks with delight about the trans- 
formation which civilization worked with his 
charges, of which already nineteen had been bap- 
tized. Interestingly he contrasts their life in the 
woods and the camp with that of civilization. The 
dirt and squalor had given way to cleanliness, so 
that the ruddy faces in their new setting were a 
pleasing sight. Regular instruction also began. 
The children were taught to spell, to read, and to 
write both English and German. Special empha- 
sis was laid upon singing and instruction in religion, 
where Luther's Small Catechism served as a manual- 
On Sundays the children would first voluntarily at- 
tend the German service, reverently joining in the 
recitation of the Lord's Prayer and the Apostles' 
Creed. In their own service, which followed, they 
sang hymns in their native language, devoutly re- 
cited the prayers, and listened attentively to the 

66 Lutheran Mission Jf'ork 

lessons from Genesis and the Gospels. Manual 
training was not wholly neglected, special emphasis 
being laid upon the sewing and the fancy work of 
the girls. 

Until 1846 the Frankenmuth colony as also the 
Indian mission was under the supervision of the 
Michigan Synod, to which Craemer with Hattstaedt 
and others belonged. But in this year all connec- 
tion with the synod was severed on account of its 
lax confessional standpoint. Other ties, however, 
were soon knit. For in the following year Craemer 
became one of the founders of the Synod of Mis- 
souri, Ohio, and Other States, which made him sec- 
retary of its mission board. As such he was 
directed to ask Loehe to have the Central Mission 
Society of Bavaria transfer the mission to the synod, 
which was finally done two years later. 

The Indians had shown great confidence in 
Craemer by sending their children more than sixty 
miles to school. It is true, the Methodists tried 
to hinder the good work, but they received no en- 
couragement from chief Bemassikeh, who time and 
again sought advice at the Lutheran colony. To 
further their plans, they spread all kinds of rumors. 
If the natives would not adhere to their party, they 
were in danger of being murdered by the soldiers. 
It was also claimed that all who were baptized by 
the Lutherans were to be sent to England and there 
sold as slaves. But one of the Indians made a trip 
to England as a member of a theatrical troupe and 
on his return testified that that country was inhab- 
ited by great numbers of people and even allowed 

Among the American Indians 67 

thousands to leave the island. However, these 
slanders were not without effect, which showed itself 
In the marked decrease of the number of Indian 
children attending the school. But when the Indi- 
aa agent vouched for the character of the missionary 
and made it clear that the Indians might adhere 
to any mission, a great change took place, and the 
number of children increased. 

Soon the work grew beyond the strength of one 
man. The trip to the Pine river always consumed 
a full week, and to look after the steadily growing 
congregation at Frankenmuth kept Craemer fully 
occupied. When an assistant had become absolute- 
ly necessary, an appeal was sent to Loehe, who en- 
dorsed the request and communicated it to the Mis- 
sion Society at Dresden. That body sent Rev. E. 
R. Balerlein, who had been designated as missionary 
for India, sickness, however, preventing his sailing 
at the appointed time. The new missionary arrived 
In 1847. He took over part of Craemer's work 
and bent all efforts on learning the Chippewa lan- 
guage. A log-house was built, one-half being util- 
ized by Baierlein's family, while the other part 
served as a school room. Much attention was also 
given to the Indians on the Pine river, to which 
Balerlein made several trips. 

And soon the relations were to become still 
closer. The persistent efforts of the Methodists 
to gain entrance evidently hastened the develop- 
ment. At his visit to Frankenmuth during July, 
1847, chief Bemassikeh complained bitterly about 
their conduct. But he had given the following 

68 Lutheran Mission If'ork 

characteristic answer to the endeavors of the 
slanderers: "The German blackcoat visited me first; 
we are friends and wish to remain such. But you 
I do not like. You howl early and late, and leap 
and move hands and legs as if you would jump into 
Heaven. When a short time ago my son died, I 
also lamented, for he was my son. But you howl 
without cause, until God shall give you a cause; 
then indeed you may howl." When in the fall of 
the same year Baierlein returned the visit, the chief 
proposed that his white friend settle among the tribe 
and instruct old and young alike. However, as the 
men were on a hunting expedition, definite arrange- 
ments were somewhat delayed, for such an impor- 
tant matter could be decided only by a council of the 
whole tribe. 

According to agreement Baierlein returned to 
the Indian village in May, 1848, accompanied by 
a half-blood as guide and interpreter. The whole 
tribe was in camp, but he found them almost starved 
on account of the food shortage, which caused Baier- 
lein to call the place Bethany, which means house 
of misery. In the morning after his arrival a 
council was held, which the missionary later de- 
scribed in his book Im Urwalde. Bei den roten In- 
diiinern [In the Primeval Forest. Anions the Red 
Men). About nine o'clock the men appeared in their 
best, while women were also present. The proceed- 
ings were in accord with Indian custom. The chief 
presided and addressed the audience at some length, 
his speech making a distinctly favorable impression- 
Its main points the interpreter reproduced in Eng- 

Among the American Indians 69 

llsh. The chief pointed out the degeneration of 
the tribe, which had caused him to invite the pale- 
face to settle among them and to give them aid. 
But before making a decision, he wanted to hear 
the opinion of all the men, which would determine 
his action. The. chief was followed by Baierlein, 
who spoke in English, using short sentences, which 
the interpreter immediately translated. Being un- 
certain whether he would be allowed to settle 
among the tribe, he took this opportunity to outline 
in some detail the road leading to salvation. On 
his own part he made two promises : he would point 
out to them the way to eternal life, in order that 
they might be happy after death. He also prom- 
ised to teach their children to read, to write, and to 
figure, which would enable them to read God's 
Word, and to keep their accounts, thereby removing 
the constant worry due to the dishonest dealings of 
the traders. In turn he made two requests: the In- 
dians were to send their children to school daily and 
regularly, and they themselves should attend the 
divine services on Sundays. In closing he asked 
them to consider the matter and to give him a defi- 
nite answer. 

A long silence followed. Tho the speech had 
had the desired effect, the men were awaiting the 
initiative of their leader. When he had given his 
assent, one after another the men rose and spoke 
in similar terms. Once more the chief addressed 
the warriors, exhorting them in his impressive man- 
ner. Then he approached the missionary and with 
a hearty and prolonged handshake received him into 

70 Luthcnin Mission Jf'ork 

the tribe. The braves followed his example. The 
chief's son called him father, and "my father" be- 
came Baierlein's name among the Indians. He was 
to dwell among a savage heathen tribe, far from 
the nearest white settlement, swallowed up, as it 
were, by the primeval forest. But as a member of the 
tribe he was protected against insult, injury, and in- 
terference with his work, as no one would dare to 
commit an act which constituted an offense against 
the whole tribe. Soon Baierlein moved his house- 
hold effects to Bethany and made his permanent 
home there. 

As the Indian village had thus become the center 
of the missionary work, Frankenmuth lost its origi- 
nal importance. Most of the Indian children were 
transferred to the mission school taught by Baier- 
lein. And when, in 1850, Craemer was called as 
professor to the Practical Seminary at Ft. Wayne, 
missionary work at Frankenmuth was abandoned 
entirely. Altogether Craemer had baptized thirty- 
one Indians. 

At Bethany a wigwam, furnished thru the gen- 
erosity of the chief, served as temporary quarters 
for Baierlein and his wife. The inconveniences, 
however, described by the missionary in detail, made 
an early change advisable, to say the least. It 
would have been folly to brave the rigors of the 
northern winter thus unprepared- The erection of 
a log-house was therefore decided upon. As no 
help could be expected from the Indians, six colo- 
nists from Frankenmuth traveled the seventy miles 
to Bethany in order to assist the missionary. Soon 

Among the American Indians 71 

a typical log-house, built of oak and fir, made its 
appearance, the the dimensions, 30x20, were some- 
what larger than usual, and the roof of shingles. It 
was divided into two parts, the smaller serving as 
study and bedroom, the larger being at the same 
time pantry, kitchen, dining room, and parlor. 
During the week the children were instructed here, 
and on Sundays divine services held. The furniture 
was primitive, most of it having been fashioned by 
the missionary himself. The log cabin was con- 
sidered the wonder of the village. On inspection 
the Indians especially admired the fire place, which 
afforded an easy exit for the smoke, which thus did 
not fill the house and trouble the eyes of the people. 
Later this log-house was torn down and enlarged. 

Manual labor soon changed the surroundings. 
The immediate neighborhood was cleared of the 
majestic forest trees, and a garden laid out. Corn, 
beets, carrots, potatoes, pumpkins, etc. repaid 
bountifully the care bestowed upon them, while 
fruit trees and flowers added an esthetic touch to 
the whole. Year by year the clearing was enlarged, 
at last comprising eight acres, and hogs, cows, and 
chickens were added to the possessions of the mis- 
sionary. Thus the block house with its surround- 
ings appeared as the scene of a busy, yet happy and 
contented life. 

But the missionary was unable to enjoy home 
hfe for any length of time. His spiritual duties 
often took him from Bethany, and the necessities of 
Hfe had to be brought from Saginaw, more than 
sixty miles distant. Trips for procuring provisions 

72 Lutheran Mission IVork 

were generally made during the winter when the 
frozen streams served as a convenient road. The 
trusty horse with the small sleigh could generally be 
counted upon to complete the journey without a 
mishap. The situation, however, became danger- 
ous when it began to thaw suddenly and the ice on 
the rapids became thin and brittle. Baierlein re- 
lates some narrow escapes from the cold waters 
when the horse with the loaded sleigh had broken 
thru the ice. Almost equally great the danger be- 
came when deep snow covered the rivers and blocked 
the roads. Under such conditions the destination 
could not always be reached before evening, and 
Baierlein was forced to camp in the open. Little 
discomfort resulted when he was accompanied by an 
Indian, who could be depended upon to select the 
proper place for a camp and cut the firewood. 
Wrapped in a buffalo robe and warmed by a bright 
fire which kept the howling wolves at a distance, he 
slept undisturbed. But in the absence of the ex- 
perienced Indian the story was an entirely different 
one. For the missionary was generally unable to 
select the proper camping place and to find enough 
trees of the white ash, so necessary for a bright 
burning fire in the open. Then day-break was 
awaited with the greatest anxiety. 

Rev. Baierlein was not satisfied with looking 
after the Indian tribe among which he had settled, 
but also interested himself in the welfare of others. 
These trips were generally made In the spring and 
summer, at first in company with an interpreter. 
The dangers and hardships encountered are interest- 

Among the American Indians 73 

ingly told by the undaunted pioneer missionary him- 
self. The crossing of streams and getting lost in 
the forest were especially feared when the mission- 
ary was alone. Once Baierlein strayed into a 
morass, narrowly escaping with his life. His deli- 
cate constitution was also unequal to the hardships 
of long rides and the inclement weather. As a 
natural consequence he was often ill. At one time 
sickness forced him to stay two weeks with a settler, 
and even then he reached his home only with the 
greatest difficulty. To all this must be added the 
danger due to hostile Indians. At one time, for in- 
stance, a tribe had been located after an exhausting 
search, and then was found to be intoxicated to a 
man. As the fire water had aroused the passions 
to full fury, a hurried retreat had to be beaten. 
The neighboring tribe at the instigation of the chief 
refused them hospitality, and having once camped 
in the open without any provisions, they reached all 
but worn out and exhausted a hospitable roof only 
at the end of the second day. The hostile whiskey 
dealers would spread rumors that the Indians were 
plotting against his life, probably being only too 
glad if the savage had taken the cue. 

Naturally the main missionary work centered 
in Bethany at the log house of Baierlein. Here 
also the Sunday services were held, and according 
to the agreement reached at the council, were fairly 
well attended by the Indians. The resemblance to 
regular divine worship, however, was at first slight. 
The audience would sit on benches or dispose itself 
on the floor. The sermon could not be preached 

74 l.iillwniH Mission tFork 

without many annoyances and Interruptions. The 
children were accustomed to play, and some of their 
piercing cries drew forth words of reproach which 
added to the noise. The women in turn gossiped 
and attracted the attention of the audience. Mean- 
while the men smoked and listened to what the mis- 
sionary told them with the help of an interpreter. 
But they gave him by no means their undivided at- 
tention. Sometimes one would ask. in a loud voice 
for fire or step up to the fire place and light his pipe. 
It also happened that one of the braves approached 
the speaker, shook his hand, and dryly remarked 
that he did not hate him on account of his residence 
in Bethany, but his words he did not intend to fol- 
low. If Baierlein asked if they had understood him, 
one might answer indifferently, "Oh, yes, 1 have 
understood it; for I have heard it more than once." 
If he asked the audience to ask questions, an ex- 
planation of the aurora borealis might be desired, 
all very discouraging for the missionary, especially at 
first when he could communicate with the Indians 
only thru an interpreter. Some of the natives 
missed the services altogether, sometimes occasioned 
by their inability to reckon time. Such persons 
were advifed to provide themselves with a stick on 
which they cut a sign each day, and to come on the 

The school, which was opened in August, 1848, 
with an initial attendance of eight, showed greater 
promise. Chief Bemassikeh was especially inter- 
ested in it, for at first he came every day and 
watched the transformation of the unruly children 

Among the American Indians IS 

into well behaved pupils. As some orphans were 
intrusted to Baierlein's care and greater interest 
shown in the school, the attendance increased to 
nineteen during the latter part of the year. The 
first Christmas at Bethany could be celebrated ac- 
cording to German fashion. There were presents, 
and for the festival occasion the missionary with the 
help of the interpreter had translated Luther's hymn 
"Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her" (Good news 
from heaven the angels bring), the first two lines of 
which read in the Chippewa language as follows : 

'Widi gishigong ishpiming 


Nimpidon tibajimowin 

Wenishishing keget 'nawon. 
The children were very anxious to learn the 
words and rejoiced to sing them, especially when the 
brilliant Christmas tree shed radiance and happiness 

It might be well to point out here what Baierlein 
in course of time did for the sound instruction of 
the pupils. The study of the Chippewa language 
had of course been diligently continued all this 
while. In order to facilitate the instruction and to 
make it more beneficial, the missionary wrote a 
primer. It consisted of two parts with an appendix. 
The first part served as an aid in spelling, the Chip- 
pewa words being rendered into English. The 
second part was a reader, the lessons being taken 
from the Bible, while the unknown Chippewa words 
were explained. The appendix contained a few 
prayers and hymns. Baierlein himself made a trip 

76 Lutheran Mission Work 

to Detroit, which was about 150 miles from Beth- 
any, and in the winter of 1852 saw the books thru 
the press. They proved to be of great help In the 
school. The children became fond of the reader, 
being especially delighted with the stories from the 
Bible, which they would read to their parents and 
friends. The hymns were eagerly memorized and 
the German tunes correctly rendered. 

The school also furnished the first candidate for 
Baptism. When the fourth part of Luther's Cate- 
chism was explained, four boys and one girl ex- 
pressed a desire to be baptized. The parents 
made no objection, and in the early part of 1849 the 
children together with the infant daughter of the 
missionary and some relatives of the chief were 
baptized by Rev. Craemer of Franltenmuth, in all 
ten Indians. On this occasion was sung the Indian 
rendering of "Blessed Jesus, we are here," the first 
stanza reading as follows: 

Oma sa nindaiamin, 

O Tebeningeion Jesus, 

Chidodamang eshiang 

Ima kitilcitowining, 

Mab' abinoji k'dodisig, 

lu chiwiawangomod. 
During the latter part of the same year three 
others received Baptism, among them as the first 
adult the widowed daughter of the old chief. 
Others followed in rapid succession, there being at 
Baierlein's departure for India, in 1853, a congre- 
gation of sixty members. Some of the conversions 
were rather remarkable. Blind Sarah, counting a 

Among the American Indians 11 

hundred summers, had steadily refused to accept 
Christ until at the first Christian funeral at Bethany, 
that of her niece, she broke down and entered the 
list of the catechumens. Ever after she attended 
divine services faithfully, even when this involved 
great physical exertion. Baierlein's neighbor at 
Bethany was Pemagojin, who proved a great source 
of help to Mrs. Baierlein during her husband's ab- 
sence. Almost daily he would visit his friend, who 
showed him Bible pictures and sought to gain reli- 
gious influence over him. For three years he re- 
mained unreceptlve, all this time comparing the life 
of the missionary with his teaching. When he 
found that they agreed, he gladly embraced Chris- 
tianity. The old chief Bemassikeh remained the 
steadfast friend of the mission, but was never bap- 
tized, postponing the rite from one spring to the 
next. He was suffering from tuberculosis, and had 
an eager desire to regain his health. The mission- 
ary could only give him relief, but no promise of 
complete restoration. Then he sought the help of 
the medicine men of his tribe and also sent for 
famous doctors elsewhere. His lung trouble be- 
came worse in time, and during a trip of the mission- 
ary he suddenly died. However, on his deathbed 
he warned his relatives and people against the 
traders and the Methodists, exhorting them not to 
forsake the "German black coat." He also urged 
them to become Christians, a step he himself would 
have taken if his life had been prolonged. 

The mission had made rapid strides during the 

78 Lutheran Mission tVork 

few years of Baierlein's work, and the meeting place 
proved too small. Sometimes there was not even 
standing room for the growing congregation and 
the visiting heathen. 1 herefore the missionary 
decided to build a log church abutting his house, a 
door from his study leading into it. It was planned 
by the missionary himself and finished with the help 
of others, only the tower giving no little trouble to 
the unskilled workers. On the whole it made a very 
respectable appearance. The tower was adorned 
by a cross, and a bell cast at Chicago served to in- 
dicate the time of worship. The inside was very 
dignified. It contained benches, altar, and pulpit. 
The altar and pulpit decorations were presented by 
pious women of Dresden, the Count of Einsiedeln 
giving a crucifix and candelabrum, and the Leipzig 
student society "Philadelphia" a communion set. 
These gifts Miessler, a student designated as Baier- 
lein's assistant, brought over with him in 1851. 
The whole structure including the bell had neces- 
sitated an outlay of 230 dollars. Tho a small sum 
in the light of modern expenditures, the missionary 
lacked the necessary funds. An American mer- 
chant at Saginaw was so kind as to lend one hundred 
dollars, demanding neither note nor interest Sub- 
sequently friends of the mission enabled Baierlein to 
discharge the debt. 

The church now became the center of the spir- 
itual work in the village. There were two services 
each Sunday, one on Wednesday and one on Friday, 
while the bell would call the members of the mission 

Among the American Indians 



Liitlu'ruii Misfioii Jf'ork 

Among the American Indians 81 

congregation to a short prayer meeting every morn- 
ing and evening. The services were now less in- 
formal than at first. On the basis of Loehe's order 
of service Baierlein prepared a liturgy in the lan- 
guage of the Indians. The congregation eagerly 
sang the hymns he translated and which his assistant 
taught them. The conduct of the Indians during 
the services also showed a decided improvement. 
The place was kept cleaner, the men no longer 
smoked, while the women no longer gossiped, and 
the children no longer played. This decorum pre- 
vailing in the house of God naturally impressed also 
the heathen. Here the marriages were solemnized 
and the funeral services held, the corpses of the . 
Christians finding a resting place at the neighboring 
cemetery according to Christian custom. 

The healthy spiritual life also showed itself in 
the improvement of material matters. The station 
became a real rallying point for the Indians, and 
their roving habits more and more subsided. Civil- 
ization had become a force. The influence of the 
medicine men waned, and the drinking bouts became 
less frequent. Much of this was due to the influence 
of the missionary. After the death of the chief, 
he was invited to take part in the deliberations of the 
council, which now met in the school house. But 
Baierlein in his prudent manner spoke only when 
asked his opinion. He advised the Indians to clear 
more land and thus make themselves more inde- 
pendent of hunting. The advice was followed, and 
from that time on the women raised more corn, 
beans, potatoes, pumpkins, and other vegetables. 

82 Lutheran Mission fVork 

so that such famines as Baierlein had experienced at 
Bethany in the first years were a thing of the past. 
The missionary also tried to persuade them to sub- 
stitute substantial log-houses for their frail bark 
wigwams. But for a long time none would make 
such a daring innovation. The widowed daughter 
of the chief was the first to build such a log-house, 
Baierlein contributing the windows and the nails 
for the roof. When others followed her example, 
he continued his generous attitude. Thus the con- 
gregation had taken long strides toward becoming 
an organized Christian community. 

But this had not been achieved without ob- 
stacles and opposition of various kinds. Before we 
pointed out the indifferent attitude of the adults, 
which at first caused Baierlein many a gloomy hour. 
Only gradually did the Word of God exert its 
power in the hard hearts of the heathen. The deal- 
ers in fire-water were naturally violently opposed to 
the work and the restraining influence of the mission- 
ary. Besides openly threatening violence, they 
spread rumors to the effect that the Indians plotted 
the murder of the missionary, probably being only 
too glad to use them as dupes to effect his removal. 
With two dealers residing in Bethany, the Indians 
lacked no opportunity to obtain the poisonous fire- 
water. Not satisfied that the men and women en- 
gaged in frequent drinking bouts, they bent their 
efforts upon seducing the recently baptized youths 
and maidens, in which they were not seldom success- 
ful. Even of Baierlein's interpreter they made a 
trader and drunkard. 

Avio)ig the American Indians 83 

They found valuable allies in the Methodists, 
who from the beginning had tried to oust the Lu- 
therans and to take possession of the field. This had 
been one reason why Baierlein settled in Bethany. 
These unscrupulous men, mostly Indians without 
adequate training for the ministry, were not above 
any tricks if that would serve to gain an entrance. 
In disorderly revivals strong pressure was brought 
to bear upon the Indians. Being unsuccessful in 
gaining converts thru emotionalism, other tactics 
were employed. Alluring promises and material 
advanta.ges served as the bait to lead the souls 
astray. Their chief endeavor, as in the case of 
Craemer, was to discredit Baierlein among the In- 
dians. Ridiculous lies, that children would be sent 
to Europe, that the old men would be forced into 
war and all his adherents compelled to move west 
of the Mississippi, were no longer believed even by 
the credulous natives. Charges of fraud also made 
no impression. Then a ntw story was concocted 
by them. The Indians were gravely told that the 
missionary had been exiled from Germany because 
his father had participated in the crucifixion of 
Christ. Only simple and childlike people like the 
Indians, who lived wholly in the present, not pos- 
sessing so much as a term for the past and future, 
could be expected to be duped by such statements. 

At first these degenerate Methodists had little 
success, but proved a very disturbing factor for the 
growth and tranquillity of the congregation. 
Those lies called for denials and a defense of the 
own position. In the course of the wrangle the In- 

84 Lutheran Mission IFork 

dians naturally began to look upon the preaching 
of the Gospel as a business transaction, where each 
man as a good trader discredited the wares of his 
competitor while recommending his own merchan- 
dise. And the ceaseless attacks severely tried the 
patience and courage of the missionary, who some- 
times was almost at the point of giving up. But 
after such experiences the outlook would brighten 

However, Baierlein's work among the Red Men 
was now rapidly drawing to a close. Delicate 
health alone had prevented his sailing to India in 
1846. When his help was urgently needed there, 
the mission board recalled him from America in 
1853. It certainly was no easy decision to leave 
such a promising field and the only recently gathered 
congregation. The absence of a strong community 
spirit at Bethany and the regrettable lack of vision 
and initiative on the part of Miessler might have 
caused him to hesitate. But he consoled himself 
with the thought that God had called him to the new 
work, and that Miessler as his assistant for one year 
and a half was not altogether without experience. 
The mission board at home doubtless had the first 
claim upon his services. 

The announcement of his leaving, which he com- 
municated to his congregation at the end of a fare- 
well sermon based upon the passage of Paul's de- 
parture from Miletus, caused profound grief. 
While the men with bent heads tried to maintain 
their boasted composure, the women and children 
covered their faces and wept bitterly. The assur- 

Among the American Indians 85 

ance that they would not be abandoned, hardly made 
an impression at first. "The father intends to 
leave his children, and we shall be scattered again," 
was the universal lament. The mission board of 
the synod had asked Rev. Sievers of Frankentrost 
to be present at the farewell in order to lessen the 
grief of the Indians. In a congregational meeting 
which he convened, he pledged them the further sup- 
port of the synod. Then the men, one after the 
other, arose, and in a dignified manner gave ex- 
pression to their regret over Baierlein's leaving and 
their fears for the future. Not only Christians, 
but also heathen were present, and one of the latter, 
Misquaamaquod (Red Cloud), gave utterance to 
what all felt: "Even if every one of us should rise 
and stretch out his hands in order to hold back our 
father, we could not hold him back. He has been 
called and he will go. However, if we could only 
get a man in his place who would be like him, we 
might be well served. But if not, then I fear that 
we shall be as a pile of dry leaves when the wind 
blows upon them." 

The last days before Baierlein's departure his 
house was thronged with visitors. The old blind 
Sarah came twice a day in order to see "her father." 
Pemagojin also made his appearance, but steadfast- 
ly declared that he would not witness Baierlein's de- 
parture. He kept his word. The day previous 
he came for the last time. When the missionary 
tried to console him, he suddenly rose, embraced and 
kissed his friend, then disappeared in the forest. 
This was the last Baierlein saw of him. The scene 

86 Lutheran Mission Jl'ork 

on the day of departure, May 19th, the missionary 
has described in a touching manner. Leave was 
taken from the members of the congregation. F"or 
the last time Baierlein saw his school room and knelt 
at the altar of the church, scenes that for six years 
had witnessed a labor of love. Then he tore him- 
self away, and while Rev. Sievers and the Indian 
congregation sang the hymn "All Glory be to God 
on High," the boat bearing the missionary and his 
family floated down the river. It ended Baierlein's 
activities among the .American Indians, and from 
now on he was engaged for thirty-three years as 
missionary in East India. After his retirement he 
wrote interestingly about his work on the two conti- 
nents, dying at the ripe age of eighty-one years, in 

When Rev. Baierlein left Bethany, heathenism 
had received its deathblow there. He reports that 
only one family still lived according to the old 
heathen tradition, tho a few had not yet joined the 
congregation. These also were convinced of the 
truth of Christianity, but lacked the moral courage 
to take the last decisive step. Those indifferent to 
Christianity also showed no interest in heathendom. 
The process of civilizing the Indians was acceler- 
ated, and their material affairs had vastly improved. 
As the attractixe log-houses became their real home, 
there was less roaming in the woods. Their dress 
looked neater and cleaner, and the home life im- 
proved. Attendance at divine services was now 
more regular, and many a genuine attempt to apply 
God's Word to every-day affairs could be observed. 

Among the American Indians 87 

Under the charge of Rev. Miessler the progress 
made at first was distinctly gratifying, and augured 
well for the future. Several people who until then 
had been indifferent were won over. Dangers 
threatening from the Methodists were also success- 
fully warded off. These, optimistic after Baier- 
lein's departure, made another attempt to destroy 
the congregation. But wholly unsuccessful in gain- 
ing a foothold at Bethany, they were also unable to 
persuade the Indians to leave their camp and to 
move to a place where every family was promised 
three acres of land. Their efforts even reacted up- 
on them. The widow of the deceased chief Bemas- 
sikeh had apostatized already during Baierlein's 
time; now, probably as a result of the unfair meth- 
ods used by the Methodists, she penitently returned 
to the Lutheran Church. The congregation was 
furthermore mcreased thru the conversion of Miess- 
ler's interpreter and the addition of an American 

The school was in a flourishing condition, an as- 
sistant having been found in the person of a certain 
Mr. Roeder. He had been conducting a mission 
school at the former station at Sebewaing, which had 
to be abandoned in 1853, as the Indians did not 
show the necessary interest. In Bethany the situ- 
ation was different. There the parents sent their 
children regularly, while these in turn showed com- 
mendable zeal. Some of the older children had ac- 
quired a fair facility in reading the New Testament, 
a second class had mastered spelling, and a third 
had just taken It up. 

88 Liitherati Mission JJ'ork 

One of the happiest experiences of Miessler at 
Bethany, tho it also proved the last, was the first 
Communion service, during Christmas of 1853. 
This called for careful preparation on the part of 
the missionary. Several weeks previous Miessler 
announced the event, and in two sermons explained 
the nature of the Sacrament. In order to render 
less difficult the self-examination, he translated, 
with the help of an interpreter, Luther's questions 
on the Lord's Supper. Visits to the different mem- 
bers gave an opportunity for further discussion. But 
as the Methodists had conducted themselves unseem- 
ly and had gone into hysterics at the celebration of 
the Lord's Supper, the majority showed a natural 
reserve, tho nearly all took part in the instruction. 
Only four signified their willingness to partake of 
the body and blood of Christ, but these were atten- 
tive and serious, rejoicing in the fact that they were 
privileged to enter into such close communion with 
their Lord. 

But the flourishing state of the mission did not 
last long. Soon a gradual decay of the spiritual 
and congregational life set in. This was hastened 
by the fate which overtook the missions in the neigh- 
borhood. The station at Sebewaing, founded by 
Rev. Schmid and for a number of years supported 
by the missionary society of the Pennsylvania Synod, 
had been abandoned by this time. Rev. Auch had 
worked here for some time with gratifying results. 
On account of its lax standards he left the Michigan 
Synod and in 1849 became a member of the newly 
organized Missouri Synod, which also took over the 

Among the American Indians 89 

mission. From now on dissensions hindered the 
work, which more and more proved to be fruitless, 
and had to be abandoned in 1851. At the request 
of some Indians a school was opened later with Mr. 
Roeder as teacher, but as no results were obtained, 
Its brief existence came to an end in 1853. At the 
abandonment of the mission station at Sebewaing, 
Rev. Auch moved to Sheboyank, where another mis- 
sion was conducted. Here Rev. Maier, at first con- 
nected with the Michigan Synod, but since 1849 a 
member of the Missouri Synod, had worked with 
great energy and enthusiasm until his death, in 18^0. 
Rev. Auch labored for several years in Sheboyank, 
but as he could not speak the Indian language and 
an Interpreter could not always be secured, a radical 
change seemed advisable. As the Indians gave 
their consent, it was thought best to combine the 
members of Sheboyank and Bethany at the latter 
place, the consolidation to take place in 1855. 

But the plan proved the undoing of the work at 
Sheboyank. When all seemed ready for the re- 
moval, a trader who was interested in the continued 
residence of the Indians at Sheboyank succeeded in 
undermining the trust of the natives in Auch. He 
ridiculed their belief in Christianity and claimed 
that they were cheated of their lands by the mission- 
ary. This was all the more effective since the 
traders as a rule were halfbloods who spoke the In- 
dian and the English language equally well, while 
Auch was unable to counteract this influence. 
These Indians had only recently been converted, and 
not being sufficiently grounded in the doctrines of 

90 Lutheran Mission Work 

Christianity, proved easy victims to the determined 
propaganda of brazen lies under the semblance of 
truth. When their influential chief was once won 
over, Auch's pleadings proved futile. In the name 
of his tribe the chief declared that they would no 
longer be cheated by the preachers of the Bible, the 
source of all evil and vices in the world. As the 
whites, they would enjoy all the benefits of this life. 
With that they fell back into heathenism, Rev. Auch 
finally accepting a call to a white congregation. 

Soon the congregation at Bethany also degener- 
ated, tho a few events like the studying of an Indian 
boy for the ministry gladdened the heart of the 
missionary. The fire-water exerted its far-reaching 
influence. The application of church discipline in 
aggravated cases also weakened the congregation, 
the suspended members being received with open 
arms by the lax Methodists. The notorious life 
led by the traders and nominal Christians not only 
reduced the church membership, but often also 
served as a bar to further additions. Thus a num- 
ber of those expected to join the congregation never 
took the decisive step. Finally, when a part of the 
congregation lost faith in the integrity of the mis- 
sionary, the decline became more rapid. Forced by 
the miserable conditions existing among the Indians, 
the mission board at first had distributed provisions. 
This the Indians wished to have continued indefinite- 
ly, altho their material situation had improved 
decidedly. Naturally the mission board desired to 
make the Indians self-supporting as soon as possible. 
This event seemingly supported the Methodists in 

Among the American Indians 91 

their claim that the conduct of the Lutheran mission- 
aries had changed, and that now they showed their 
true colors. All admonitions not to identify Chris- 
tianity with a religion feeding the belly proved in 
vain. These remonstrances resulted, on the other 
hand, in accusations against Miessler, and the mission 
board was petitioned to remove him and his assis- 
tant. The indifference of the adults toward the ser- 
vices and of the children toward the school plainly 
showed the effect of the slanders. Several lapses, 
drunkenness, disorderly conduct, and open defiance 
of the missionary also proved that the degeneration 
was taking its course. Tho not a few families re- 
mained faithful, and conditions became better tem- 
porarily, no permanent improvement could be noted- 
As often, the encroachment of civilization 
brought danger to the mission station, for its ten- 
dency has always been toward the removal of the 
Indians. As that part of Michigan gradually be- 
came settled, the Government, under pressure from 
the whites, decided to effect the removal of all In- 
dians in Michigan to Isabella Co., which was about 
twenty-five miles from Bethany. There each family 
was promised eighty acres of land, while schools, 
mills, and good roads should also be built at Gov- 
ernment expense. In 1855 the Indians were prevailed 
upon to sign the new treaty, and soon afterwards the 
removal from Bethany began in spite of all that 
Miessler and the mission board could do. Four years 
later most of the members had left the station, 
of the rest some lived scattered thru the forest, 
others joined the Methodists or returned to 

92 Lutheran Mission JVork 

their former idolatry. According to Miessler's 
statement, only four widows showed a longing for 
the Word of God, and the work became very dis- 
couraging. In these years the missionary often 
sought consolation at the cemetery, where the 
graves of Christian Indians helped him to forget 
the keen disappointment caused by the hardhearted- 
ness of the living. 

The end was to come soon. In 1860 most of 
the Indians had removed to Isabella Co., and the 
synod requested MIessler to follow his charges, the 
possibility of returning to Bethany to be left open. 
The farm there was rented, while the old log church, 
out of repair and tottering, was pulled down. 
Later the land belonging to the mission was sold, 
with the exception of the cemetery in which the 
bodies of twenty Lutheran Indians were resting. 
At Mt. Pleasant, Isabella Co., a new mission was 
organized, which for a time looked very promising. 
The bell from Bethany did service in the newly 
erected log church. While at first divine services 
and the school were well attended, gradually the 
conditions prevailing at Bethany returned, only a 
few members remaining loyal. The exhortations 
of Miessler proved to be in vain. As the indiffer- 
ence of the Indians increased, they broke all pledges 
and promises. F'inally, in 1869, the synod recalled 
Rev. Miessler, who accepted a call from a white con- 
gregation. The promising work among the Chip- 
pewas had been destroyed by the same causes that 
time and again have proved the downfall of Indian 
missions. Denominational rivalry and the fire- 

Among the American Indians 93 

water of the whites had a large share in accompHsh- 
ing the result; but the decisive factor proved to be 
civilization with its vices, the life of men and women 
who in words and deeds bring reproach upon the 
name Christian. 

The same year also witnessed the abandonment 
of the last mission station among the Chippewas 
by the Missouri Synod. It was located on the upper 
Mississippi, close to Gull Lake, the poatoffice being 
Crow Wing, in Minnesota. In the spring of 1857 
Rev. Cloeter began the work, for a time assisted 
by Henry Craemer, son of Prof. Craemer, who serv- 
ed as interpreter. After 1859 Cloeter had sole 
charge of the extensive field. At first the missionary 
made long tours thru the wild country in order to 
come in contact with the Indian tribes. The Rabbit 
Lake Indians were at first successfully approached, 
while later many others felt his influence. The confi- 
dence of many heathen was soon won by his evident 
sincerity. The Chippewa language was diligently 
studied, and after five years of severe application 
Cloeter was able to work without an interpreter. It 
seemed as if all circumstances were favorable for 
effective and successful work. 

But these hopes were blasted in the summer of 
1862, when the Indian insurrection drew within its 
circle nearly all the tribes of the great Northwest. 
The Chippewas were also affected. Many persons, 
caught unawares, were killed, and Cloeter was also 
in great danger. He narrowly escaped with his 
family thru the friendship of the chief of the Rab- 
bit Lake Indians, who warned the missionary of the 

94 Lutheran Mission IVork 

approaching danger and held the Indians back till 
Cloeter was safe. The mission station was de- 
stroyed and the work hard hit. Tho the missionary 
had saved his life, his hooks and translations were 
lost. Undaunted by these misfortunes, Cloeter 
resolutely set to work again. But as after a number 
of years no tangible results could be shown, the last 
mission station among the Chippewa Indians was 
closed in 1869. 

Chapter IV 



"P^OCTRINAL differences that had arisen be- 
-L' tween Loehe and the Missouri Synod finally 
•led to an open break in 1853, with the resultant 
withdrawal of Loehe's co-operation at the request 
of the synod. Henceforth he was also no longer 
contributing toward the Chippewa Mission, for 
which the Missouri Synod in 1849 had assumed full 
responsibility. But instead of abandoning his activ- 
ities in America, as had been suggested to him, 
Loehe transferred them to a new field, namely, to 
the state of Iowa, praying that the work there might 
be continued unhindered by intra-denominational 
strife. Tho this proved to be a forlorn hope, the 
labors there were not without important results. 
For already in the next year, in 1854, they led to 
the organization of a body sometimes spoken of as 
the German Iowa Synod, In so far a misnomer, as 
the language designation has long since been 
dropped and the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of 
Iowa and Other States Is represented In more than 
twenty states of the Union. 

However, Loehe's love for the Red Man was as 
strong as ever, and almost immediately steps were 
taken looking toward missionary work among the 
Indians. When, in 1854, M. Schueller arrived, he 
was considered a suitable man to start a mission in 
Minnesota, but as no favorable opportunity offered 

96 Lutheran Mission JTork 

itself, the plan had to be abandoned. In this and 
the following year Loehe succeeded in arousing in- 
terest for a mission among the Indians, with numer- 
ous pledges of financial support as the concrete evi- 
dence. Thus J- J. Schmidt, who had received his 
training at Neuendettelsau, Bavaria and who ar- 
ri\ed in 1856, could be designated as missionary. 
He was fired with holy zeal for the undertaking, 
when at its meeting in 1856 the young and strugg- 
ling synod boldly decided to begin a mission in con- 
junction with the Buffalo Synod and friends in Ger- 
many. As the Indians in the Great West were on 
the warpath, work among them in the immediate 
future was out of the question. Therefore Rev. 
Schmidt, accompanied by Rev. S. Fritschel, made a 
tour of investigation to Canada. They visited mis- 
sionary \'ogler of Hernhut, who was stationed at 
Moraviantown on the Canadian bank of the St. 
Clair river. From him the two men not only re- 
ceived advice, but also letters of introduction to the 
officials of the Canadian department of Indian Af- 
fairs. These, however, told them that there was 
no room for a mission among the Indians under 
their jurisdiction, adding that farther north the 
shores of Lake Superior and the region under con- 
trol of the Hudson Bay Company might offer an 
opportunity. The approaching winter made any 
further investigation inadvisable, and so they re- 
turned to Detroit, where Rev. Fritschel was station- 
ed, while Schmidt supplied during the winter the 
congregation at Dubuque and taught at the semi- 
nary, Rev. Grossman being on a trip to Germany. 

Among the American Indians 97 

The reghon recommended by the Canadian Indi- 
an officials was accordingly singled out for further 
investigation. In the early spring of 1857 Rev. 
Schmidt, accompanied by the student Sussner, set 
out from Detroit. Their journey, almost wholly 
by water, brought many hardships. When they 
arrived at Superior City, only recently founded on 
the western shore of Lake Superior, they were told 
to proceed farther north to Grand Portage, on the 
Canadian side of the lake. Their guide soon 
deserted, compelling them to row about 125 miles 
during unfavorable weather. Finally in the early 
part of July the missionaries reached the bay of 
Grand Portage and with it their destination. 

The field was soon explored. But as inquiries 
among the different tribes met with no encourage- 
ment, the obstacles to a mission seemed insurmount- 
able. Two of them were especially formidable. 
The Roman Catholics had already preempted the 
field, and each year a Jesuit priest came for a few 
months to Grand Portage. Furthermore, a Chris- 
tian agent informed the missionaries that the Hud- 
son Bay Company, in possession of the trade monop- 
oly, did all in its power to prevent the establishment 
of Protestant missions, as it evidently feared that 
the outside world might gain information about the 
corrupt methods of the trading company. In spite 
of this unfavorable news, Schmidt and Sussner made 
an attempt to gain a footing among the Bois-forte 
Indians, first asking their permission to begin work. 
But the answer, evidently inspired by the Jesuit 
missionary who had only recently arrived at the 

98 Lutheran Mission fVork 

camp of the tribe, was anything but hopeful: "We 
like your person and figure, and would desire your 
services; but you are ignorant of our speech, and we 
want a teacher or missionary who speaks our lan- 
guage." All promises to acquire their speech availed 
nothing. As the approaching winter and lack of 
means made further investigations westward im- 
possible, the disappointed missionaries finally left 
in September for Detroit, taking the same route they 
had used before. At the pastoral conference held 
at St. Sebald in November, Rev. Schmidt made his 
report. As a letter from Germany indicated that 
the friends of the mission there began to lose hope, 
it was deemed wise to re\ive the sunken spirits by 
sending a letter which outlined the main facts of the 
situation and implored the German friends to con- 
tinue their support, especially as the missionary 
maintained an undismayed attitude. 

Thus two efforts looking toward missionary 
work had utterly failed, and for a time the outlook 
was anything but encouraging. But as soon as the 
Indian war blew over, the prospects began to 
brighten. In Detroit Rev. Schmidt had become 
acquainted with a certain Mr. Redfield, a Govern- 
ment agent for the Crow Indians, whose territory 
extended along the Yellowstone and the Big Horn 
rivers in the present state of Montana. And in 
distinction to the warlike Sioux and other tribes, the 
Crows were peaceful and always had maintained a 
friendly attitude toward the whites, tho their repu- 
tation in other respects was anything but enviable. 
An early account mentions not only their physical 

Among the American Indians 99 

strength and beauty, but also their moral depravity, 
and to outlie a Crow was considered no mean 
achievement among the traders. 

Mr. Redfield readily gave his consent when it 
was proposed that missionaries accompany his party 
to Crowland in the following spring. Such a favor- 
able opportunity was eagerly embraced, and the nec- 
essary preparations were immediately made. As 
Schmidt's companion for the arduous undertaking, 
Moritz Braeuninger of the Wartburg Seminary at 
St. Sebald was selected. During the latter part of 
May, 1858, a steamer carried the party upstream 
from St. Louis, and it was fully a month later when 
it reached Fort Union, a trading station at the 
mouth of the Yellowstone river. Within that time 
the territory of seven different tribes had been trav- 
ersed and more than 2,350 miles had been covered. 
According to treaty stipulations the Crows were to 
receive their "presents" at Fort Union, but the 
Mountain Crows insisted that they be brought to 
their own territory. As on account of shallow 
water the steamer could not proceed, two river flat 
boats were used instead. The trip became hazard- 
ous at times, for the boats had to be dragged over 
the rapids with ropes. Thus thirty-seven days were 
consumed to cover the comparatively short distance 
to Fort Sarpy, a station about fifty miles below the 
mouth of the Big Horn river. 

A.t that time Fort Sarpy consisted of seven small, 
but strongly fortified houses, and as a typical fron- 
tier post it boasted of all the vices of civilization. 
The missionaries found life there intolerable. Al- 

100 I.ulheran Mission Work 

ready on the boats they had received much less con- 
sideration from the "Christian" fur traders than 
from two chiefs of the Crow Indians who accompan- 
ied the party from Fort Union on. Life among the 
heathen Indians, who to the number of 1,500 dwelt 
in 160 tents near the post, seemed decidedly prefer- 
able to a stay in a rude and degenerate community. 
Without a thoro acquaintance of the Indian lan- 
guage and customs the missionaries ventured among 
the tribe, where their reception was cordial. The 
chief Dachbizaschuch (head of a bear) entertained 
them in his own tent, and also provided horses for 
their convenience. Sharing the hardships of tribal 
life, and travelling from place to place, two months 
were profitably spent, eagerly employed by the mis- 
sionaries in learning the language of their new 
friends. When toward autumn part of the Crows 
visited Deer Creek, a branch of the North Platte 
river, in order to make peace with a hostile tribe, 
Schmidt and Braeuninger accompanied them. 
Early in October the fort was reached, from which 
the missionaries continued their journey homeward, 
arriving at St. Sebald, Iowa, on the 2Sth of Novem- 

The report which they submitted was distinctly 
encouraging. Not only had the Indians accorded 
them a warm welcome, but also requested them to 
stay. Since the two men, however, had been sent 
on a tour of investigation only, they were neither 
authorized nor prepared to take up the work im- 
mediately. But before they left, the Indians ob- 
tained the promise of their return the following 

Among the American Indians 101 

spring. "Only reluctantly did they let us depart, 
for they would rather have persuaded us to stay. 
A thousand times they asked us if we would really 
return when the winter had passed and the grass 
grew again. Some even offered to accompany us to 
Iowa, which we had to decline." 

Under such favorable circumstances energetic 
steps looking toward a mission among the Crows 
were immediately taken. It was decided to estab- 
lish a colony in Crowland, a pet idea of Loehe, who 
had tried a similar experiment in Michigan. The 
object here was two-fold. It was thought that it 
would solve the problem of provisions, which at that 
time commanded a prohibitive price in the North- 
west. At the same time it was to serve as an in- 
ducement to converted Indians to try settled life, for 
the roving habit made difficult regular public wor- 
ship and the much needed supplementary instruction, 
and also had an unfavorable effect on the new spirit- 
ual life. A plea for financial support was submitted 
to the Government, but the petition was not granted. 
However, the report of the missionaries brought 
substantial contributions from within the synods of 
Iowa and Buffalo, while the main share of the ex- 
penses was borne by friends in Germany, where the 
Central Mission Society of Bavaria, as the result 
of Loehe's untiring work, remained a stanch friend 
and supporter until the end. The Mission Society 
at Luebeck, under the direction of Dr. Lindenberg, 
also sent considerable- sums. 

Unforeseen events delayed the departure of the 
party until July 5, 1859. For various reasons, the 

102 Lutheran Mission Work 

money consideration playing the chief part, the land 
route was decided upon. Even then lack of means 
prevented Kessler, Krebs, and a farmer from join- 
ing the party, which consisted of Schmidt, Braeun- 
inger, Doederlein, and the student Seyler as mission- 
aries, with Beck and Bunge as colonists. Their 
destination was Deer Creek, where they expected to 
meet the Indians. The start had been late, and on 
account of sickness and other delays the overland 
journey consumed more time than had been antici- 
pated. Another disappointment awaited the party 
when it reached Deer Cree'k in the fall. No Crow 
Indians had made their appearance at the fort dur- 
ing the summer, compelling the missionaries to go 
into winter quarters 150 miles from the territory of 
their Indian friends- There they experienced a 
hard winter. Altho a Captain Reynolds showed 
them much kindness, the Indian agent at the station 
seems to have made the most of his opportunity. 
In order to supply the party with provisions in the 
spring, Schmidt and Doederlein had been sent back 
to Iowa. 

The synod, however, was unable to grant the 
urgent request, the means being barely sufficient to 
support the missionaries during the winter and to 
finance the journey into Crowland. Under the lead- 
ership of Braeuninger the party resumed the 
journey in the early spring of 1860, and at 
the advice of Captain Reynolds a mission station 
was built on the Powder river, a branch of the Yel- 
lowstone. It was erroneously thought that the lo- 
cation was within the territory of the Crows, and 

Among the American Indians 


at the same time not more than 150 miles from the 
nearest postoffice. A log-house was erected, and a 
piece of land fenced in and cultivated. Soon the 
Indians began to frequent the mission station, and 
as Braeuninger had acquired a fair command of 

Mission Station on the Powder River 

their speech and was especially proficient in the use 
of the Indian sign language, the interviews proved 
to be of benefit. During June Braeuninger made a 
visit to Deer Creek, and the encouraging report he 
could send to Iowa was accompanied by a pencil 
drawing of the station reproduced by us. 

The work seemed to have a promising future, 
when like a thunderbolt out of the clear sky the 
news reached Iowa that Braeuninger was missing, 
probably having been murdered by the Indians. 
The circumstances surrounding his disappearance 

104 Lutheran Mission fVork 

were as follows: On the 21st of July six Indians 
belonging to the Ogalala tribe of the Sioux nation 
visited the log cabin of the missionaries. They 
were hospitably received, ate supper, and remained 
until noon on the following day. One of the Indi- 
ans offered moccasins in exchange for a woolen 
blanket, but Braeuninger's policy not to trade with 
the Indians was adhered to. The Indians seemed 
to be satisfied, and after dinner made ready to leave. 
But before starting out, one of them, who had been 
most friendly toward the hosts, removed the bullet 
from his gun, and instead loaded it with three balls. 
To Seyler this seemed peculiar, but in answer to a 
question Braeuninger, not suspecting that the gun 
might be loaded for himself, remarked: "That is 
the practice among the Indians when they expect an 
attack of their enemies. If they hunt game, they 
generally remove the balls." 

During the afternoon Braeuninger decided to 
take a walk, which at Beck's suggestion should in- 
clude the bringing home of the cattle. Going along 
the stream they encountered behind a thicket half 
a mile from the station the very Indians who had 
left them several hours before, but had gone in the 
opposite direction. The equally surprised Indians 
told Braeuninger that they had heard a shot and 
feared that their enemies, the Blackfeet, were in 
the neighborhood. They asked him whether he 
would conceal them in case their enemies should 
appear. This Braeuninger promised to do, ex- 
plaining that the cellar would afford protection, at 
which remark the Indians indulged in roaring laugh- 

Among the American Indians 105 

ter. While Beck took care of the stock, the mis- 
sionary started with the Indians toward the station. 

When Beck reached the house, to his surprise 
Braeuninger and the Indians had not yet arrived, 
and all waiting proved to be in vain. Fearing an 
accident. Beck and Seyler went over the ground 
carefully, but the most diligent search on this and 
the following day proved fruitless. Later friendly 
Indians related that one of the Ogalalas had treach- 
erously shot Braeuninger in the back, and as the 
fatally wounded man rose, his enemies had killed 
him with blows, cut his face, and thrown the body 
into the swollen river. Displeasure at a settlement 
of whites on the Powder river had moved them to 
this act. Some have supposed this to be a piece of 
fiction invented by the Indians for the purpose of 
frightening the missionaries. According to their 
supposition the Indians and Braeuninger separated, 
the missionary started for home, and was attacked 
by one of the numerous bears of this region. 

The first account is much more plausible. The 
Indians evidently were determined not to tolerate 
a settlement within their territory, and correctly 
reasoned that the murder of the leader would drive 
away the others. Almost stunned by the blow, and 
having met no Crow Indians on the Powder river, 
the missionaries retreated to safe ground on Deer 
Creek, there to await further instructions. The 
leader of the undertaking, an exceptionally capable 
man, had died a martyr to the cause, and his pre- 
sentiment which caused him in leaving Neuendettels- 
au to wind about his photograph a crown of thorns 

106 Lutheran Mission fVork 

had been a correct Indication of his end for the 
glory of the Lord. 

Before the report of the tragedy reached Iowa, 
the committee in charge had sent as reenforcements 
Krebs and Flachenecker, additional money having 
been received from Bavaria. When the new men 
joined the other missionaries on Deer Creek, the 
situation was carefully gone over. Lack of avail- 
able means prevented the founding of a colony in the 
territory of the Crows, but it was decided that the 
old friends should be taken care of just as soon as 
circumstances permitted. With the consent of the 
Indian mission board the missionaries now turned 
their attention to the Cheyenne or Zista Indians. 
A station was located about one hundred miles west 
of Fort Laramie, in the present state of Wyoming. 
It consisted of log buildings a few miles south of 
the North Platte river, close to a post route and a 
trading station. An effort to farm was also made, 
but met with little success, as the light rainfall made 
irrigation necessary. 

In the spring of 1861 Rev. Ch. Kessler arrived 
from Iowa and became the head of the mission, 
while Krebs and Flachenecker were ordained. The 
work was carried on energetically, and the Arapa- 
hoes, who at that time maintained friendly relations 
with the Cheyennes, were included as objects of the 
missionary endeavors. The Crows had not been 
forgotten. But efforts of two of the missionaries 
to get in touch with them proved in vain; on their 
trip they passed the abandoned station on the Pow- 
der river, which they found in ashes. The labor 

Among the American Indians 107 

among the Arapahoes bore no fruit. Much more 
promising was the work among the Cheyennes. A 
few of the missionaries constantly accompanied 
them on their wanderings and shared their mode of 
living. Thus they not only acquired a fair knowl- 
edge of the Indian language, but also gained the con- 
fidence of the tribe in a high degree, which showed 
itself by kind and courteous treatment. 

Whenever possible, preaching services were 
conducted regularly. Rev. Krebs has described 
them in an interesting manner. "To such an Indian 
camp near the station I went regularly on Sundays 

and Wednesdays and called out : ^Winaasz 

nistochiz namhaiohniwh, nata eesz he zistas wues- 
tanio,^ which means : 'All of you are invited to my 
house, I wish to speak to the Zista people.' Regu- 
larly men, women, and children responded in such 
numbers as to fill the room, while some were unable 
to get inside. The service began with the recitation 
of the Lord's Prayer in the language of the Zistas, 
followed by a sermon. Then came long discussions 
with the answering of questions. The audience was 
very quiet and attentive, except that occasionally 
the remark Hbawa,^ 'good,' or the expression of joy 
'haho' was heard. 

"One who never came was the chief Hotuamo 
(male elk). Generally he made his appearance at 
a different time, namely, just before supper. In the 
New Testament story of feeding the five thousand, 
Christ preaches before he feeds the hungry multi- 
tude. I intended to follow his example. The chief 
was fond of sitting on a home-made bedstead. So 

108 Lutheran Mission Jt'ork 

one day 1 joined him there and talked to him about 
God, sin, and forgiveness- During my discourse he 
was very quiet, fixing his eyes on the floor. As on 
previous occasions, he waited while supper was being 
prepared in his presence. But before I had finished 
talking, he suddenly rose and left. During the 
following days he did not appear, instead sending 
me an invitation to visit him. Three of us went. 
Seldom or never does one find such perfect order as 
prevailed in his tent on this occasion. The chief 
was alone. He asked us to be seated, then passed 
the peace pipe, which made the round according to 
custom. Up to this time he had been silent. Now 
he addressed us in the following manner: 'I am 
very glad to have my best friends with me. Today 
my heart experienced great joy. I am acquainted 
with many people, but among them all you are most 
dear to me.' Then he told about the Indian tribes 
he had visited, the Europeans he had known, as also 
about his extensive travels. 'I also noted,' he con- 
tinued, 'the various religious ceremonies of the Indi- 
ans and the whites, as also yours; but I never inter- 
fered. If I saw something peculiar in the ceremon- 
ies of others, I always kept silent, and never spoke 
against them. Everything was satisfactory to me.' 
With this speech he wanted to impress upon us that 
we should not interfere with their religion and say 
nothing against their idolatry. To inform us of 
this had been the sole purpose of the invitation. 

"That same afternoon he visited me. As on 
other occasions, our friend waited for supper, while 
I sat at his side and talked to him as before. I 

Among the American Indians 109 

asked him not to scorn or to reject my words, since 
they were of God. He listened In silence, then rose, 
and left before supper. It proved to be his last 
visit. Within a short time the Indians broke camp; 
but while In passing the others nodded and waved 
at us in a friendly manner, our former friend turned 
his face In the opposite direction and scorned to look 
at us. Not long after this we were informed that 
he with another who had shown his hostility against 
us even more frankly, had been the first of the Chey- 
enne tribe to be hanged by the troops." 

For In the spring of 1862 the Indians of the 
Northwest rose against the Government. The 
Cheyennes were drawn into the trouble, and the 
missionaries, after concealing their valuables near 
the station, fled to Fort Laramie. Seyler and Kess- 
ler returned to Iowa for provisions, which at that 
time had a prohibitive price in the Northwest, a 
sack of flour, for Instance, costing thirty dollars. 
The Insurrection was put down within a short time, 
and already during the same summer the missionar- 
ies could return to the station, which they found only 
slightly damaged. As formerly, they received per- 
mission to accompany the Cheyennes on their wan- 
derings, and Krebs even won the confidence of the 

However, the men sent to Iowa were not able 
to return during the same year, sufficient means not 
being available. Not until April, 1863, could Kess- 
ler and the new missionary. Matter, start for Deer 
Creek, where they arrived at the end of July. As 
on account of the war practically everything had 

1 10 Lutheran Mission fFork 

advanced in price, the two wagon loads of food and 
other necessaries represented an outlay of fully 
$2,000. Rev. Kessler had become married, and as 
a bride for Beck accompanied the party, there were 
now two women at the station, undoubtedly a bless- 
ing for all. 

Meanwhile a very gratifying event had oc- 
curred. Three Indian children, named Muchsianoe 
(brown moccasin), Ekois (little bone), and Mis- 
tahemik (owl's head) had been entrusted to the care 
of Krebs, who instructed them. This relieved 
somewhat the monotonous life of Krebs and Flach- 
enecker which the theft of their horses had forced 
upon them. When Kessler arrived, active mission- 
ary work could again be taken up. As soon as pos- 
sible Flachenecker and Matter set out for the camp 
of the Cheyennes, but found all fighting men on the 
warpath against the Crows, their old enemies. 
Flachenecker utilized the time by preaching to the 
women and old men, and when the warriors re- 
turned, testified against their cruel mode of warfare. 
The Christmas festival of 1863 found him again at 
their camp, while at the mission station on Deer 
Creek the oldest of the Indian boys, Frederick, re- 
ceived the Sacrament of Baptism. The second, 
named Paul, was baptized the following Easter. 

However promising this success might seem, the 
events soon to follow disclosed a different situation. 
The adult Indians showed little or no permanent in- 
terest in the preaching of the Gospel. It was found 
also that the unrest among the Sioux was likely to 
spread to the Cheyennes and make further mission 

Among the American Indians 


work Impossible. This fear was only too well 
founded. Enraged by dishonest dealings, the Indi- 
ans awaited only a favorable opportunity to strike. 
The Civil War had denuded the Northwest of 
troops, making possible the great Indian uprising 

Missionary Krebs and Three Christian Indians 

in the summer of 1864. The few companies of 
Federal troops proved no match for the concen- 
trated forces of the Indians, being compelled to re- 
treat while the Indian hordes under the leadership 
of the powerful and warlike Sioux ravaged the 
country. The missionaries sought protection at 
the military post a few miles away. But as the 
garrison of forty men was utterly Inadequate, two 
months were spent in daily fear of a massacre, the 

1 1 2 Lutheran Mission JVork 

enemy meanwhile ransacking the mission station. 
When finally the Sioux threatened the region of 
Deer Creek, friendly Cheyennes notified the mis- 
sionaries of the approaching danger and requested 
them to leave within four days. They should re- 
move also the three Indian boys to a place of safety. 
This friendly advice was followed, and toward the 
close of the year the missionaries arrived with their 
charges in Iowa. 

With this the mission really came to an end. 
The missionaries entered congregational work with 
the exception of Rev. Krebs, who took up quarters 
in Wartburg Seminary with the three Indian boys 
whose love and confidence he possessed. There 
they were further instructed with the hope that ul- 
timately they might be sent as missionaries to their 
own people. Alas, a forlorn hope! The ways of 
civilization once more proved fatal to the children 
of the plains, as two of them were attacked with 
tuberculosis. The youngest, who had been the last 
to receive Baptism, was the first to succumb. With 
true Christian fortitude he resigned himself to his 
fate, showing by his conversation during the last 
days a deep understanding of the essentials of the 
Christian religion. On August 2, 1865, he died, 
and already in December the second followed him, 
who also showed toward the end the results of the 
Gospel teaching. 

During 1866, when an early peace with the In- 
dians was confidently expected, the hope of mission- 
ary work once more flared up. Krebs and Matter, 
accompanied by the convert Frederick, were sent to 

Among the American Indians 1 13 

the Northwest; but as hostilities, in which the 
Cheyennes took a prominent part, broke out again, 
they did not even reach the Indian territory. At 
the meeting of the synod in 1867 the missionary 
work among the Indians was declared temporarily 
at an end, tho Rev. Krebs should watch for an op- 
portunity to resume work among the Cheyennes. 
But it did not present itself. Finally, in 1885, the 
funds were transferred to the Neuendettelsau Mis- 
sionary Society, to be used in the foreign field among 
the Papuas. 

But what had become of Frederick, the first of 
the Indian boys to be baptized? The story is soon 
told. As long as he remained under the supervision 
of his spiritual father Krebs, all went well. But his 
natural gifts or rather the absence of them precluded 
a career as missionary or minister, so finally he had 
to shift for himself. The temptation of the world 
proved too much for him, and a life of sin followed. 
Only when after a number of years God's hand laid 
him • low in sickness, could a change be noticed. 
The disease resulted in his death, and it is charitable 
to believe that God's grace was not in vain. 

And the visible result of a mission extending 
over a period of ten years, with the heavy sacrifices 
of money and effort, even life! The cemetery of 
St. Sebald, Iowa, contains a double grave, marked 
until recently by a wooden cross with the inscription : 
"Two Indians." According to plans, a simple but 
fitting memorial will soon commemorate the resting 
place of two Christians from among the Red Men, 
and serve as a reminder of an undertaking which, 

1 14 Lutheran Mission JP'ork 

tho the results be entirely disproportionate to the 
effort, shows the endeavor of noble and consecrated 
men to pay the Christian debt of gratitude under 
discouraging circumstances. 

Chapter V 



FOR singleness of purpose and unremittent labor 
by one man, no Lutheran undertaking looking 
toward the Christianization of the Red Man can 
compare with the Danish work among the Chero- 
kees at Oaks, Oklahoma. In our chapter entitled 
Pious Wishes we met the tribe in Georgia, the Salz- 
burgers of Ebenezer planning at one time to be a 
light to the benighted heathen. For at the time 
of the discovery of America and for fully three 
hundred years later the Cherokees held the whole 
mountain region of the Southern Alleghenies, tho 
evidence is not lacking that as a member of the Iro- 
quoian family they had originated in the north. 

The Cherokee Indians are highly intelligent, 
and about 1820 adopted a form of government 
modelled on that of the United States. Only a few 
years later a halfblood invented an alphabet, which 
at once raised the tribe to the rank of a literary 
people. But they were not allowed to remain very 
long in their accustomed hunting grounds. When 
In the second decade of the last century gold was 
found on their territory in Georgia, a powerful agi- 
tation for their removal west of the Mississippi at 
once set in. In spite of their splendid struggle under 
their great chief John Ross, the trickery and injus- 
tice of the state and federal governments forced 

116 Lutheran Mission ff'ork 

them to sell their entire remaining territory in 1835. 
The removal to the assigned region in the Indian 
Territory took place in the hard winter of 1838-9, 
involving terrible hardships and causing many 

At the new location the tribe suffered severely 
during the Civil War, when on account of a division 
of sentiment its members fought for both the Con- 
federate and the Union cause- The outcome of 
the struggle compelled them to liberate their negro 
slaves and to grant them equal citizenship. Since 
then the tribe has made great strides toward civiliza- 
tion. By an agreement with the United States Gov- 
ernment, the tribal form of government came to an 
end in 1906, the Indians acquiring citizenship. 
During the last decades the Cherokees have in- 
creased considerably, the western branch of the tribe 
numbering close to 30,000 persons. When the 
partly forced removal took place, in 1838-9, quite 
a number escaped to the mountains, who later were 
allowed to settle on lands set apart for them in 
North Carolina, where they number at present about 
2,000 souls. 

The mission of the Danish Ev. Luth. Church in 
America, now the United Danish Ev. Luth. Church, 
takes us back to the year 1888, when a young man, 
-N. L. Nielsen, emigrated from Denmark with no 
other motive than to find an Indian tribe among 
which he could settle, preach the Gospel, and by 
his life's work be of eternal benefit to the people. 
Many things combined to discourage the young man 
in his plans, among them the claim that the Red 

Among the American Indians 117 

Man could not be won for the Kingdom of God. 
But courageously he kept his purpose before him, 
being influenced more by Christ's command and 
promise, Matthew 28:19-20, than by the dire pre- 
dictions of friends and acquaintances. 

A few years were spent in preparation for the 
work at Trinity Seminary, Blair, Nebraska. Then 
God opened a door among the Cherokee tribe in 
Oklahoma. With a firm trust in God's help and 
guidance the young missionary began his labors on 
June 11, 1892. He immediately secured the ser- 
vices of an interpreter and with his help began to 
preach the Gospel to the heathen. Soon after a 
Sunday school was started, and a little later also a 
day school organized. Thus in time the confidence 
of the Cherokee people was won and the foundation 
for successful work laid. 

After a stay of more than twelve months among 
the tribe, the missionary felt the need for an help- 
meet, having experienced the truth of God's Word 
to Adam : It is not good that the man should be 
alone. A Danish bride arrived from across the 
waters in 1893, the couple being married on Septem- 
ber 7th. In their prayerful attitude the two worked 
unceasingly for six long years, with no visible fruits 
and no converts. Then one day an old full-blood 
came and told them that his daughter, a pupil in the 
mission school, was sick, and desired to see the mis- 
sionary. When he arrived, she told him of her wish 
to be baptized. The consent of the father was 
readily secured, and a few weeks later, on Easter 
Sunday, 1898, the Baptism took place. That was 


Lutheran Mission Work 

a great event in the life of the missionary and his 
wife. The ice was now broken. In the fol- 
lowing year fourteen persons were baptized. Since 
then the flock has steadily increased, until at present 
there is an organized congregation of over two hun- 
dred souls. 

Before the Boarding School 

In time a fine little church was erected, to which 
were added later a commodious two-story school 
building and a boarding house. Trained teachers 
are employed in the school, in which the Bible, 
Luther's Small Catechism, and Vogt's Bible History 
are the favorite textbooks. This school is the nur- 
sery for the church and the congregation. Out of 
it have come most of the converts. The missionary 
believes that at present there are about one hundred 
pupils who have the secret desire to be baptized, but 
are held back by shyness or opposition at home. 

Among the American Indians 1 19 

Like other Indians, the Cherokees are not fond 
of work. However, according to the testimony of 
the missionary, they are gradually improving, rais- 
ing more grain and vegetables from year to year. 
There is a good deal of superstition and immorality 
left, but the Gospel lifts the people gradually to a 
higher plane. 

The missionary correctly holds that the converts 
should be taught to become self-supporting as soon 
as possible and also to make some sacrifices for 
others. The annual Thanksgiving and mission sales 
yield $50-$75 for the cause of foreign missions. 
The women and children bring their fancy work, and 
the men and boys contribute small sums from their 
field earning. In 1917 a collection for the suffering 
Armenians yielded over $30, while $25 was contrib- 
uted to the Y. M. C. A. The Indians also made 
their contributions toward the Lutheran Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Aid Fund. 

Since the war ended and the influenza epidemic 
subsided, some regrettable features have become 
more prominent. Among the young people es- 
pecially there is a hankering after worldly pleasures. 
There seems to be less sincerity, and a falling off in 
church attendance has also been noticed. Lately 
the white element in the neighborhood has mani- 
fested a strong opposition to religious teaching in 
the school. But at the same time, there is a grow- 
ing desire for more knowledge -and a better educa- 
tion. A number of children could Jately be added 
to the congregation, and the outlook for the future 
is distinctly encouraging. 

120 Lutheran Mission Work 

Thus the work among the Cherokees has en- 
joyed a healthy and steady growth, showing what 
with the help of God prayerful and conscientious 
work may accomplish. "The dear Lord has done 
more than I or we ever expected to see here. His 
name be praised." These are the closing senti- 
ments in a report of missionary Nielsen. 

Chapter VI 

AT its convention in 1883 the Wisconsin Synod 
created a permanent committee of five pastors 
charged with the duty of selecting a missionary so- 
ciety both orthodox and successful which was to re- 
ceive the synod's contributions for foreign missions. 
In the following year the committee reported that 
"in spite of its efforts it had been unable to find a mis- 
sion society to which it could conscientiously entrust 
the money, as with none of them they were in com- 
plete agreement regarding faith and doctrine." In 
view of this extraordinary situation the synod recom- 
mended that young men willing to become mission- 
aries among the heathen should be trained in the 
theological seminary, and the available funds used 
for this purpose. Several years later, in 1891, the 
committee was able to report that three such stu- 
dents, J. Plocher, G. Adascheck, and P. Mayerhoff, 
had been- received into the seminary, and in all 
probability would finish the course within two years. 
The question of selecting a field for the mission- 
aries soon presented itself. For a time Japan re- 
ceived considerable attention, and tentative plans 
to begin a mission there were drawn up. However, 
when Indian agents from the great Southwest of our 
own country pleaded for help, it was decided to in- 
vestigate the possibilities of a mission among the 
Red Man. Accordingly, in 1892 two ministers were 

122 Lutheran Mission Work 

sent to Arizona and New Mexico, one of them Rev. 
O. H. Koch, who was a member of the Wis- 
consin Synod Indian Mission Board till 1920. Af- 
ter a thoro investigation the two men recommended 
that a mission be begun among the Apaches on the 
San Carlos Reser\ation in Arizona. This seemed 
especially appropriate in view of the fact that no 
Christian missionaries were working among that 
numerous heathen tribe. Whether the Wisconsin 
Synod alone would ha\e felt itself strong enough 
for the undertaking, is problematical; but just at this 
time the larger organization including the synods of 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Nebraska, 
was formed, and the plans with a statement of pre- 
liminary work done submitted to this body. After 
due deliberation it was decided to accept the pro- 
posed plans, the immediate supervision of mission 
work being entrusted to a board of seven members. 
Since the Wisconsin Synod was by far the most im- 
portant member of the old joint body and the main 
support of the mission, and since the different synods 
have recently been re-organized as The Evangelical 
Lutheran Joint Synod of Wisconsin and Other 
States, we may conveniently refer to the mission 
under that name. 

The Apaches, who were singled out as the object 
of evangelization, form the most southern group of 
the Athapascan family. Formerly their field of op- 
eration covered extensive regions in the Southwest. 
Up to very recent times, they were noted for their 
warlike disposition, white as well as Indian settle- 
ments feeling the ruthlessness of their raids. At 
last General Miles, in 1886, compelled their surren- 

Among the American Indians 


der, and since then the majority of the tribe has 
been confined to the San Carlos and Fort Apache 
Reservations, where they are looked upon as prison- 
ers of war. These comprise 10,990 
square miles of land, partly mountainous and cover- 
ed with splendid forests. The soil is very fertile, 

Apache Women 

but for the raising of crops irrigation is necessary 
as the rainfall in Arizona is extremely light. While 
formerly the tribe practised agriculture to a very 
limited extent, now quite a number have settled 
down as farmers, tho many continue to move from 
place to place. Their shelters consist of brush huts, 
easily erected, which are well suited to the dry and 
mild climate of Arizona and their roving inclina- 
tions. Filth and dirt does not seem to inconvenience 
them very much. 

Most of the five thousand members of the tribe 

124 Lutheran Mission ff'ork 

are living on the two reservations, tho quite a tew 
go beyond the confines in quest of temporary work. 
The Apache clings very tenaciously to the customs 
and traditions of his people. In fact, he does 
everything possible to remain an Indian, scorning 
the attempts toward civilization put forth by the 
white man. The native language is also carefully 
adhered to. It is very rich in terms dealing with 
material things, and according to our notion could 
spare some of its expressions. However, on the 
other hand, religious terms are practically absent, 
a fact explained by the poverty of religious ideas. 

Some competent observers claim that the Apache 
has no religion at all, at least not now, whatever 
may have been the situation in the past. He has 
two words for the deity, it is true, one for his own, 
and the other for the God of the whites, whom he 
utterly despises. His own god he regards as the 
creator of the world, who takes little further 
interest In man. At times it seems as if he believes 
him personified in the sun, but the tribe as such can- 
not be classed in any way as sun worshippers. There 
is no desire on his part to communicate with his god, 
for he neither prays to him nor does he offer sacri- 
fices in his honor. 

However, there is a strong belief in the exis- 
tence of evil spirits, to which the Apache ascribes all 
his troubles and misfortunes. In order to drive 
away the evil influence, special rites and ceremonies 
are necessary, the knowledge of which is jealously 
guarded by the medicine men, who claim to be in 
direct communication with the Great Spirit. The 
influence of these medicine men is still very power- 

Among the American Indians 125 

ful, and therefore some of the Carlisle Indian 
school graduates turn to this lucrative employment. 
In order to negative the influence of the mission- 
aries, the medicine men appropriate those parts of 
Christian teachings which appeal to the Indian mind 
and tell the missionaries that the Indian does not 
need their services, since the native doctor is offer- 
ing the same things. There is no belief in a iuture 
life, and no happy hunting ground awaits the braves. 
Death is the end of existence. 

Like so many primitive peoples, the Apache has 
no idea of moral depravity and Innate guilt. Re- 
morse, if shown at all, is confined to sorrow over 
unguarded conduct which has brought down punish- 
ment upon his head. Arrest and confinement make 
very little impression upon him, as it is not consider- 
ed a disgrace to have been in jail. Private blood 
feuds are still common among the Apaches. The 
home life, if one can dignify the family existence by 
such a term, is grossly immoral, the sexual relations 
even among children being very lax. Deformed and 
weak offspring are left to their fate, tho the Apache 
desires numerous strong and healthy children. It 
is considered the duty of the old and feeble to die, 
because their usefulness is ended. 

The attitude of the Apache toward the whites Is 
partly determined by his belief, strongly fostered 
by the medicine men, that according to the will of 
the Great Spirit the palefaces must serve the Indian. 
The white man finally will pass away, and every- 
thing he has built up will be left as a heritage to the 
Indian. Therefore every kindness shown him is 
accepted as a matter of course arid without any 

126 Lutheran Mission fVork 

show of gratitude, except where intercourse with the 
powerful officials of the Government dictates an 
outwardly grateful attitude. The following ex- 
perience is typical of his viewpoint: One day an 
Indian came to a white man with an ax, the handle 
of which was broken. He asked for a new handle, 
which was given him. The white man even fastened 
it to the ax, since the Indian showed no inclination 
to do so. He also told him that the ax must be 
sharpened before it could be of much use. Accord- 
ingly, both went to the grindstone, the Indian turn- 
ing it while his white friend was sharpening the ax. 
This finished, the white man went into his house. 
When after about an hour he stepped into his yard, 
he found the Indian still there. Upon inquiring 
what he wished, the Indian answered naively: "I 
turned the grindstone for you; you have not yet 
paid me. I want twenty-five cents for it." 

The natural intelligence of the Apache is great, 
and upon proper application he proves to be an apt 
scholar. But as yet very few have received ade- 
quate education. This is partly due to their unwill- 
ingness to acquire the culture of the whites. The 
children are not easily kept in school, and even those 
who have become acquainted with the learning and 
the conveniences of the whites as a rule return to 
the ways of their fathers. For this reason the in- 
tellectual and moral development of the tribe has 
not made very great progress. 

Among these benighted people the Wisconsin 
Svnod decided to begin missionary work. In the 
fall of 1893 two of the three missionary students, 
J. Plocher and G. Adascheck, having been duly or- 

Among the American Indians 127 

dained, reached the San Carlos Reservation. The 
Fort Apache Reservation to the north was at that 
time still under the supervision of the Indian agent 
at San Carlos, later being raised to an independent 
agency. A military garrison was then maintained at 
San Carlos, where the Indian agent also had his 
residence. Communication with the outside world 
was by courier and stage coach, until, in 1896, a 
railroad brought greater transportation facilities. 

The first and most important task was the 
selection of a proper location for the station. On 
account of the demoralizing influences of modern 
civilization, it was not deemed advisable to choose 
a site very close to a white settlement. On the other 
hand, however, it had to be in the vicinity of large 
Indian camps, in order that a sufficient number of 
children might be secured for the school. After due 
investigation, a spot nine miles from San Carlos 
seemed to be the ideal location. Negotiations with 
the Government were begun, and with the consent 
of the Indian chief ten acres were secured on the 
San Carlos river, on account of the dry climate ir- 
rigation being necessary. Good drinking water was 
also obtained. Here a tent and later the more 
permanent buildings of the first mission station 
among the Apaches were erected. 

With the coming of the railroad and a stop in 
the neighborhood later the station became known as 
Peridot, the history of which we shall trace to the 
present before we discuss in detail the work at other 
places. Rev. Plocher at once took a firm hold of the 
undertaking, among other things teaching the chil- 
dren in the Government school at San Carlos. The 

128 Lutheran Mission Work 

labors of Rev. Adascheck, however, were of short 
duration, for he resigned after about a year, unable, 
as he believed, to learn the Apache language, even 
English causing him considerable difficulty. The 
vacancy was not filled at this time, since Plocher felt 
himself equal to the task at least for a while. He 
even found time to investigate the situation at 
Camp Apache, ninety miles distant, where later the 
second station came to be located. In order to 
facilitate the acquisition of the native language, an 
Indian boy, who in addition to his mother tongue 
had also a fair command of English, was engaged, 
and made himself very useful in the school and the 
garden. On the land belonging to the mission a well 
was dug, and the fenced portion cultivated. A 
modest dwelling for the missionary and a school 
house were also built. About twenty children at- 
tended the mission school, where the Catechism and 
Bible History formed the chief course of study. At 
first the missionary preached to the Indians with the 
help of an interpreter, while later he composed 
short sermons and delivered them wherever oppor- 
tunity offered. 

However, the constant and trying work finally 
forced Rev. Plocher to take a much needed rest in 
the summer of 1897, after which he resumed the 
labor with new vigor. Meanwhile a railroad had 
been built, which cut the mission property in two. 
But as the Government willingly gave another piece 
of land in exchange, no material loss was sustained. 
The missionary work also went steadily on. The 
time was amply filled with the teaching of the young 
and the preaching to the adults, excellent relations 

Among the American Indians 129 

being maintained at all times. And finally, as th^ 
first fruit of long and conscientious work, four chil- 
dren were baptized at San Carlos in April, 1899. 
The Indian agent was very much impressed with the 
efficient instruction given in the schools, and he urg- 
ed that two missionaries be stationed at each of the 
missions maintained by the synod. If the Lutheran 
Church should be unwilling to expand the work, 
another denomination would be called in. Material 
help was promised in case the suggestions of the 
agent were followed. But at this time the health of 
the missionary who had labored six years among 
the Indians, as also that of his faithful wife, broke 
down and forced them to leave, the mission board 
accepting the resignation with genuine regret. 

Since conditions at Peridot demanded the 
presence of a man, Rev. Mayerhoff, then stationed 
at Fort Apache, the second mission, consented to 
move to Peridot until the vacancy was filled. Five 
futile calls were sent out, until at last the board se- 
cured the services of Cai-1 Guenther, a student of 
theology. He arrived at Peridot in February, 1900, 
and for a few weeks shared the work with Rev. 
Mayerhoff, who at the end of that time returned to 
Fort Apache. Rev. Guenther soon found his bear- 
ings and proved to be a successful missionary. The 
work of Rev. Plocher was continued, while a collec- 
tion of Indian words and phrases left by him was of 
considerable aid in acquiring the language. It now 
became increasingly evident that a second missionary 
should be stationed at Peridot. The numerous calls 
sent out, however, were all declined. Therefore a 
plan formerly recommended by Rev. Plocher was 


Lutheran Mission Jf'ork 

now carried out. As a theologically trained man 
could not be secured, a school teacher was called in 
the person of Mr. K. Jens, who accepted the call. 
Rev. Guenther welcomed him heartily, especially as 
his efforts in the school proved to be very successful. 
More and more the result of faithful and con- 

Sialion Peridot 

scientious work began to appear. At the beginning 
of 1901 a boy, pupil of the Government school at 
San Carlos, desired Baptism, which he received on 
March 4th. During the following month ten girls, 
between ten and sixteen years of age, also announc- 
ed themselves and were baptized in May. If it 
should strike one as extraordinary that these cate- 
chumens were baptized so soon after their request 
had been made, he must remember that they had 
been instructed in the fundamentals of Christianity 
by Rev. Plocher for several years, so that a shnrt 

Amottg the American Indians 131 

review sufficed. At this time a young man who had 
made application years before but was unwilling to 
renounce the devil, was also added to the number of 
the baptized. Since his young wife had received 
Baptism before, there was now one Christian family 
among the Indians. As the baptisms increased, the 
number of Christians reached twenty-five within a 
few months. 

The work among the children also had prosper- 
ed. The school building, 18 x 24, built of adobes, a 
sun-burnt brick, now proved too small. It was, 
therefore, decided to build a more modern struc- 
ture, costing in the neighborhood of $2,500, the 
Government donating not a little of the material. 
A great deal of the manual labor was done by Rev. 
Guenther and Mr. Jens, who with the consent of 
the mission board bought a team and wagon for this 
particular purpose. The building, which was to be 
used both as a school and a place of worship, could 
be dedicated in May, 1903. The necessary equip- 
ment was generously furnished by voluntary gifts 
from the congregations of the synod. After the 
dedication sermon ten children were baptized, while 
one confirmation took place. The number of baptiz- 
ed had now reached fifty-eight. 

In the summer the work received a serious set- 
back thru an accident to Mr. Jens, which proved 
fatal. A newly secured teacher remained only a 
comparatively short time, ill health forcing his 
resignation. On account of other work,. Rev. 
Guenther was unable to teach In the mission school 
himself, which consequently was abandoned. It 
seemed also better to concentrate all strength upon 

132 Lutheran Mission ff'ork 

instruction in the Government schools, until now all 
the baptized having been won there. The efforts 
expended at the school at San Carlos had proved 
especially successful. In the year ending June, 1904, 
forty children of that school were baptized, making 
since 1899 seventy-two in all. The Rice Boarding 
School was also regularly visited by the missionary, 
whose schedule on Sundays was especially heavy, 
since he preached not only at the mission, but also 
at the two Government schools. No second mission- 
ary could be secured, but an interpreter made the 
task of a lone man a little less difficult than it would 
have been otherwise. 

In 1905 unexpected assistance was furnished by 
the Rev. J. F. G. Harders, a gifted pastor at Mil- 
waukee, whom throat trouble had compelled to seek 
a more favorable climate. After one year's fruitful 
work at San Carlos, he indeed returned to Milwau- 
kee, but in 1907 was prevailed upon to accept the 
superintendency of the whole mission field in Ari- 
zona. Stationed at Globe, he discharged the duties 
of that important office with great success, as we 
shall find when the history of the Globe mission is 
presented in detail. F'or a time Rev. Haase assisted 
in the work at Peridot, until he was sent to the field 
at Globe. His labors there were shortlived, since 
the obstacles placed in his way by so-called white 
Christians seemed to him insurmountable, and in a 
despondent mood he soon resigned. At San Carlos 
the Government had built a chapel for missionary 
purposes, which later passed entirely into the hands 
of the mission. The work at Peridot and vicinity 
proved to be too arduous for one missionary, who 

Among the American Indians 133 

served in all nineteen different preaching places. 
However, all efforts to secure an additional man for 
this important post proved unavailing. 

Finally, in 1911, ill health forced Rev. Guenther 
and his wife to leave the field. A pastor who tem- 
porarily filled the position did not give satisfaction, 
and student Karl Toepel was then called, arriving in 
Arizona in 1912. Even before this time a school 
according to the plan of Rev. Harders, furnishing 
the pupils with a dinner at noon, had been opened 
and proved increasingly successful. However, in 
1915 Rev. Toepel became very ill and was unequal 
to the arduous task. Therefore he handed in his 
resignation and left the field in the spring of 1916. 
Till the end of that school year the children were 
under the supervision of Miss Kieckbusch, a young 
lady from Wisconsin. During the summer Rev. A. 
Zuberbier, who was stationed at Cibecue, the fourth 
mission of the synod in Arizona, had charge of the 
station, an arrangement all the more welcome since 
hay fever rendered his life miserable at Cibecue- 
But In the fall of the same year circumstances made 
it advisable that he should remove again to his 
former station. Since no missionary could be secur- 
ed before the opening of the school, student Nitz, 
who had filled a similar position at Globe with some 
success, was sent to Peridot. Soon a new mission- 
ary in the person of Rev. G. Fischer was secured, 
who labored there till the spring of 1918, when the 
Government requested his withdrawal. Missionary 
Rosin, then stationed at Globe, was asked to move 
to Peridot and to take charge of the work. This he 
did in April, devoting quite a bit of time to the 

134 Lutheran Mission Work 

Government school at Rice. Since November, 
1919, he has had the assistance of Rev. F. Uplegger, 
So that for a time two missionaries were stationed 
there. Later, Rev. Uplegger was transferred to 
Rice. The number of baptized is about thirty and 
that of the communicants the same. The mission 
school is attended by thirty, while thirteen are in- 
structed in the Government school. In all, about 
four hundred persons are reached by preaching, and 
seventeen are being prepared for Baptism. The 
value of the property is estimated at $8,000. At 
Rice, where the Catholics have erected a beautiful 
chapel, an $11,000 chapel and house are in the 
course of construction. 

We noted before that at San Carlos, the seat of 
the Indian agent, an Indian school had from the 
first received the attention of the missionaries. The 
Government built here a beautiful chapel of white 
sandstone, and generously allowed the missionaries 
to use it for preaching purposes. In 1911 it became 
the property of the mission, when a bell and an or- 
gan could be added thru the generous contributions 
of mission friends in the synod. 

Until 1918 San Carlos had been served from the 
Peridot station. When there was danger that the 
Catholics would invade the field. Rev. A. Uplegger 
of Globe was asked to go there. The missionary 
pitched his tent beside the chapel and did efliicient 
work, expending his main efforts at San Carlos and 
Bylas. At both places fruit has appeared. At San 
Carlos there are now seventeen baptized members, 
and forty persons are being made ready for Bap- 
tism. In the Governnment school thirty-five children 

Among the American Indians 135 

are instructed, while in all eight hundred persons are 
reached by preaching. The value of the property 
is $3,500. A splendid showing has also been made 
at Bylas, established as a station in October, 1920. 
There the congregation has ten members, forty-five 
children are instructed in the Government school, 
and in all five hundred persons are reached by 
preaching. Rev. G. Schlegel is the missionary. 

The second mission station of the Wisconsin 
Synod in Arizona is located at East Fork on the Fort 
Apache Indian Reservation. Already in 1894 Rev. 
Plocher, accompanied by an Indian, had made a 
tour of investigation. He found conditions so 
favorable that he recommended that a mission be 
begun on the East Fork river, close to Fort Apache. 
In the following year the synod decided to send a 
missionary to the extremely promising field. Rev. 
P. Mayerhoff, one of the three men especially edu- 
cated for the mission work, accepted the call. He 
arrived in Arizona in 1896 and for a few weeks en- 
joyed a profitable stay at Peridot with Rev. Plocher. 
The latter also accompanied him on the interesting 
trip to Fort Apache, about ninety miles distant. 

At a suitable place three miles from Fort 
Apache, on the East Fork river, the station was lo- 
cated. For six months a tent had to serve as shelter 
for the missionary. Then a modest dwelling, 
12xl2,was erected, which in 1898 made way for a 
more substantial building. Rev. Mayerhoff imme- 
diately began to give religious Instruction to about 
sixty children in the Fort Apache Government 
school. He also spent no little time In becoming 
acquainted with the Apache language, even then 






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f, '-iiat* 


lid -•".::- 


^^^ -^ 



iMMMMaa ' 





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Among the American Indians 137 

trying to translate portions of Luther's Small Cate- 
chism. Not only the numerous Indians living in the 
valley of the East Fork close to the mission received 
spiritual care, but also bands farther removed were 
visited from time to time. Since the missionary was 
forced to raise his own vegetables, manual labor 
varied with the intellectual work. 

After some negotiations, the Government read- 
ily granted sufficient land for the mission. The 
plank hut, 12x12, could now be utilized for 
school purposes, since in 1898 a house costing about 
$1,100 was erected. The outlook for a school seem- 
ed especially bright, as the missionary had won the 
perfect confidence of the Indians. 

When, in 1899, sickness compelled Rev. Plocher 
to leave Peridot, Rev. Mayerhoff for a time dis- 
charged the duties there. His absence from East 
Fork was keenly felt and very much regretted. Not 
only the Indians, but also the whites desired his 
presence. In addition to other duties, he even for 
a time preached every Sunday at Fort Apache to 
the garrison composed of about two hundred sol- 
diers, mostly colored. Much' to his regret, the 
promises in regard to a mission school were not ful- 
filled, as the Indians moved too much from place to 
place. Only occasional visits could be made to the 
more distant bands. Until 1902 the work of this 
extensive charge rested solely upon the shoulders of 
Rev. Mayerhoff, since all efforts to secure an addi- 
tional missionary were futile. Finally Mr. O. 
Schoenberg was called as a teacher, and with the 
help of two Indians a frame building, 20 x 40, to be 
used for both school and church purposes, was erect- 










^% ' 

. ^iHl^v'j. lSB 

img^f^^ t^amm 

Among the American Indians 139 

ed by the two men. The attendance increased, and 
the twenty children were instructed by Schoenberg 
with a great deal of enthusiasm. 

As the heavy work had ruined Rev. Mayerhoff's 
health, he was forced to leave in the summer of 
1903, having spent seven years in the Christianiza- 
tion of the Apaches. As his successor Cand. H. 
Haase was called, who took, up his duties in 1904. 
He showed himself to be a very energetic worker, 
making long trips to preach to the Indians in theix" 
camps. The school attendance gradually became 
less, as the Government enlarged its boarding school 
and offered many more attractions than the mission 
day school. Finally it was decided to abandon the 
school and to concentrate all strength upon the in- 
struction in the Government school. Mr. Schoen- 
berg was now ordained, and for the first time the 
station had two missionaries, who worked harmo- 
niously and not unsuccessfully. 

Meanwhile, in 1905, Rev. Harders had explored 
the situation at Globe, a growing mining town just 
outside of the reservation, and it was deemed best 
to station a man there. Accordingly, in 1906, Rev. 
Haase was sent to the third mission station of the 
synod in Arizona, while Schoenberg remained in 
charge of the extensive field, where he preached at 
nine different places. Fruit began at last to appear 
in the request of some for instruction preparatory 
to Baptism. Now the missionary was also able to 
use the native language with some degree of facility, 
which showed itself in the translation of the Lord's 
Prayer. Unfortunately, about 1910 he became dis- 

140 Lutheran Mission ff'ork 

couraged and indififerent to the work, and for a time 
was in the employ of the Government as a forester, 
tho he soon returned to his former occupation. 

Shortly after his return Rev. Schoenberg was re- 
quested by the board to move to Cibecue and to be- 
gin mission work there, as this promising field had 
been visited by him before. As his successor at 
East Fork Cand. Edgar Guenther was called in 
1910. By this time the mission school had been re- 
established according to the suggestion of Rev. 
Harders, the children being furnished a meal at 
noon time. The work of the missionary has been 
very successful, the relations maintained with the 
Indians being very close, who are loved by him as 
brothers. When at one time pneumonia carried 
away many of the people, he cared for the survivors 
in both a material and spiritual way according. to 
the best of his ability. 

After the death of Rev. Harders, in the spring 
of 1917, Rev. Guenther was appointed superinten- 
dent of the whole field. For some time Mr. G. 
Gleiter assisted in the school, and when, in 1918, he 
was drafted into the army, Cand. M. Wehausen 
was called as second missionary. With combined 
efforts the two men erected a dining room for the 
Indian children of the mission school and a parson- 
age for Rev. Wehausen. The number of preaching 
places now also increased. The report of April, 
1920, mentions that there are seven baptized and 
three communicant members. The latest report, 
April, 1921, mentions fifteen baptisms. The mission 
school is attended by forty-two pupils, while thirty- 

Among the American Indians 141 

four are also instructed in the Government school. 
In all, three hundred seventy-five persons are reach- 
ed by preaching, of which seven will soon be baptiz- 
ed. The value of the property, including a chapel, 
is given at $4,500. 

Among the preaching places was also JVhke- 
river, four miles north of Fort Apache, where the 
work in the Government day school became very in- 
fluential. In October, 1919, Rev. Guenther moved 
to White-river, where a mission house was com- 
pleted in April, 1921. The work there looks very 
promising. Until 1920, four baptized and three 
communicant members formed the congregation, 
but thirty-three persons were recently added by 
Baptism. The number of children instructed in the 
Government school is sixty-eight, while In all one 
thousand persons are reached from this station. 
Unfortunately Rev. Guenther became sick In Febru- 
ary, 1920, and after several months was only far 
enough recovered to go on a much needed vacation. 
Rev. E. A. Sitz, in charge of Globe-Miami, a white 
mission, was temporarily discharging the duties of 
the station. Supt. Guenther has now recovered, but 
is still assisted by Rev. Sitz. The latter Is also serv- 
ing Carrixo Canyon, a station established December 
IS, 1920, but as yet with no permanent buildings. 

The third mission was organized at Globe, a 
mining town of about 8,000 inhabitants, just to the 
west of the San Carlos Reservation. In 1905, while 
Rev. G. Harders was assisting in the work at Peri- 
dot, floods destroyed many of the Indian farms near 
Peridot and San Carlos. In consequence of this, 

142 Lutheran Mission Work 

great numbers of Indians who depended upon work 
tor a subsistence moved to Globe, where the rich 
copper mines promised lucrative employment. Rev. 
Harders considered it his duty to follow these 
Indians and to preach to them in their new environ- 
ment. Consequently he moved to Globe and labor- 
ed among them for some time. However, with the 
improvement of his health he returned to his congre- 
gation at Milwaukee, while Rev. Haase of East 
Fork was asked to take up the work there. Making 
his headquarters in Globe, he visited the different 
mining camps in the neighborhood. But the degen- 
erating influence of white civilization placed many 
difficulties in his way, and at last he abandoned his 
efforts as hopeless and accepted a call tendered by a 
congregation in the North, leaving a vacancy hard to 

Rev. G. Harders of Milwaukee, who had shown 
himself during his year's stay in Arizona as a suc- 
cessful missionary, was selected to assume charge of 
the difficult field. After some negotiations his con- 
gregation released him, and he was now free to em- 
ploy his great gifts in the cause of Indian mission 
work. He reached the field of labor in September, 
1907, and immediately took energetic steps for the 
enlightenment of the heathen. As house rent was 
prohibitively high, he bought a house at a fair price, 
and at his own expense erected a small chapel, which 
was later acquired by the synod. Thus Globe be- 
came the center of intense missionary activities. 
Counting its neighborhood, about seven hundred 
Indians could be reached. The necessary assistance 

Among the American Indians 143 

was also soon found. On his travels Rev. Harders 
had become acquainted with Mr. E. Reclcnagel, a 
theological student at St. Louis, who in his great love 

Rev. G. Harders 

for the Indian and his admiration for Rev. Harders 
offered his help. This arrangement being satisfac- 
tory to the board, he was accordingly ordained and 
installed, and for several years served acceptably. 
At this time the administration of the whole mis'- 

144 Lutheran Mission JVork 

sion field was reorganized along new lines. Until 
then each missionary had been responible only to 
the mission board, which exercised its supervision 
from a base thousands of miles away, tho once it 
had been found necessary to send one of the mem- 
bers on a tour of inspection. Now a superinten- 
dency was created and filled by the selection of Rev. 
Harders. The missionaries submit their reports to 
the superintendent, who scrutinizes them and trans- 
mits them to the board, at the same time filing a 
general report and making recommendations. Pe- 
riodically he also visits the different fields and con- 
sults with the workers. However, the missionaries 
are also in direct touch with the board thru corre- 
spondence with the different members. The whole 
arrangement has worked very satisfactorily. 

In order that the benefits resulting from consul- 
tation and closer co-operation might be obtained, 
regular conferences were established. To give an 
insight into the very practical transactions, we note 
some items from the program of the first. A paper 
dealing with missionary preaching in the Bible was 
read by Rev. Harders. Each member of the con- 
ference presented a short sermon on the resurrec- 
tion of the Widow's Son at Nain as he would de- 
liver it before Indians- Rev. Guenther then read a 
paper dealing with the history of the Apaches. An 
alphabet of the Apache language was drawn up and 
accepted. It was furthermore decided that each 
man should write a paper in the language of the 
tribe once a month; this was to circulate among the 
missionaries in order to give each an opportunity 

Among the American Indians 145 

to offer criticisms and to make improvements. At 
the second conference, among other manuscripts a 
prayer book for children was submitted, accepted, 
ordered printed, and distributed. A children's pa- 
per, partly in the Apache language, was also to be 
published. It may easily be seen that such activities 
are not only of great value in determining policies 
and deciding difficult cases, but they also improve the 
missionaries' knowledge of the native language and 
tend to maintain a spirit of enthusiasm for the 
work. In order to give the reader some idea of 
the language of the Apaches, we append here the 
Lord's Prayer: 

Nochta yakayo sindtahn. 
Nijji nojogo holae. 
Ni banantahi gidawa. 
Nogustzan bika ni nihi agutaele yakayo agudzahi 

Didjin nochlidan dadjibigahi nochanne. 
Nochanlchahi nochanagodena nochi gaechgu hadn 

nochahahadenhahi banagodenta. 
NaguntluggI bijiji do adidnthlossguda. 
Ndi donjodahi bitzaji nochhidschonde. 
Ni nantahi eige hadzllli eige itisgo nojoni hibiga. 
Dahaje, dahaje. 

Dolechtgo atae. 

Soon after taking charge of the mission, Rev. 
Harders began a day school on a plan which proved 
so successful that it was adopted at all other sta- 
tions. The small and irregular attendance had been 
the cause of the abandonment of the mission 
schools in 1905. In order to assure a good attend- 
dance, the pupils received a meal at the noon hour. 

146 Lutheran Mission IFork 

which naturally possessed great attraction. Food 
remnants were collected from the hotels, coffee and 
sugar either bought or sometimes donated. In ad- 
dition to religious subjects and the common 
branches, manual training was also given. On the 
whole the arrangement worked with mariced suc- 
cess, for the attendance was excellent considering 
the fact that some of the pupils had to walk from 
two to ten miles every morning. A great improve- 
ment was also noted in their behavior, while rapid 
progress was made in the different subjects. The 
school, successively taught by the Misses Irmgard 
Harders, Hilda Harders, Klara Hinderer, Mary 
Kiekbusch, Mr. Gurgel, and Mr. NItz, furnished 
quite a number of catechumens, who in course of 
time were baptized. 

The preaching of the Gospel to the adults was 
not neglected. At twenty different places the mis- 
sionary and his assistant gathered the Indians. In 
June, 1909, there were already forty baptized per- 
sons, the children included. Now the first Apache 
congregation with a membership of ten could be or- 
ganized in Globe. And fifty baptized persons were 
also visited from this place. Thus gratifying prog- 
ress had been made in a number of ways. 

In the beginning of 1917, Rev. Harders received 
an assistant in the person of Cand. A. Uplegger, 
since ill health made the task too arduous for him. 
But hardly had the new missionary taken over part 
of the duties when, on April 13th, Rev. Harders 
passed to his reward. This was a severe blow not 
only to the work at Globe, but for the whole field. 
Rev. Harders was an exceptionally able missionary 

Among the American Indians 147 

who maintained the necessary enthusiasm and per- 
sistence in the midst of the greatest difficulties. And 
as superintendent of the whole field for ten years he 
had won the respect and admiration of his co-labor- 
ers. Greatly beloved by the Indians and enjoying 
their confidence to a remarkable degree, he on his 
part loved them as brothers. Among them he was 
happy, among them he intended to be buried, a wish 
which was granted. In order to create interest in 
the Indians and the mission work among them, he 
had appealed to a larger audience thru a number of 
writings. "Jaalahn" and "La Paloma," two stories 
dealing with Indian life, have received wide recog- 

As assistant to Rev. Uplegger at Globe, the mis- 
sion board called Cand. H. Rosin, who accepted 
the call. Now for a short time Globe had two 
workers, but when, in the spring of 1918, Rev. 
Fischer had to leave Peridot, Rev. Rosin was trans- 
ferred to that place. Thus only Rev. Uplegger re- 
mained in Globe, but as the Catholics threatened to 
begin work in San Carlos, he was transferred there. 
Thus Globe was for a time without a missionary. 
Since October, 1919, the field has been in charge of 
Rev. H. C. Nitz. The station has twenty baptized 
members, the number of communicants being the 
same. Three hundred and fifty persons are reached 
by preaching, and four or five probably will be 
baptized soon. The property value is estimated at 

The fourth mission station established by the 
synod in Arizona is at Cibecue, about fifty miles 
from Ft, Apache and Globe. It has a delightful. 


Lutheran Mission Work 

romantic location, with plenty of wild game. This 
station on the Cibecue river for a time seemed to 
be the most promising of all the missions. There 
a great number of Indians have settled and work 
their farms, the chief occupation being the raising 
of horses. Rev. Schoenberg had made a number of 

Buildings at the Cibecue 

visits there and preached the Gospel to the Indians. 
In 1911 it was decided to make a more determined 
effort, and he was asked to move there with his fam- 
ily. Rev. Schoenberg secured a piece of land and 
immediately began the building of a dwelling, mean- 
while living in a tent. In the spring of 1912 a school 
was opened. As only one room was available for 
school purposes, not more than twenty-three pupils 

Among the American Indians 149 

could be received, altho several others were ready 
to come. To remedy the situation, a building for 
school and church purposes was erected at a cost of 
about $500. Its walls were constructed of adobes 
and the roof was covered with tin. Thruout the 
week Rev. Schoenberg taught school and on Sundays 
preached in the language of the Apache without the 
help of an interpreter. Thus the work there had an 
auspicious start. 

But in November of the same year Rev. Schoen- 
berg handed in his resignation, which was accepted 
by the board. Rev. Harders and Rev. Guenther 
supplied there until the summer of 1913, when 
Cand. A. Zuberbier was called. The work of the 
new missionary at first seemed very successful, as he 
won the complete confidence of the Indians. The 
school began to flourish, and many improvements 
were made in regard to the property. When, in the 
summer of 1916, Peridot had become vacant. Rev. 
Zuberbier temporarily moved to that place, hay 
fever making his life miserable at the station on 
the Cibecue. But when no missionary could be se- 
cured for the latter post, he was willing to be sta- 
tioned there again. During the school year 1917- 
18 Miss Kiekbusch was assisting the missionary in 
the school. 

However, in May, 1919, Rev. Zuberbier resigned 
and left for the North, the station being temporar- 
ily without a man. Since October, 1919, A. 
Albrecht supplied for some time. Later he returned 
to the North, Rev. Weindorf taking his place Sep- 
tember, 1920. There are only a few baptized mem- 

ISO Lutheran Mission fVork 

bers, but more intensive working of the field is be- 
lieved to bring results. The mission school is attend- 
ed by twenty pupils, and in all two hundred people 
are reached by preaching. The property belonging 
to the station, including a chapel and mission house, 
is valued at $3,500- 

On the whole, the mission work of the Wiscon- 
sin Synod in Arizona has made gratifying progress 
during the last years. And provided the necessary 
men can be secured, several new fields will be open- 
ed this year. However, it is extremely hard to in- 
duce men with the necessary qualifications to serve 
among the Indians. In our discussion it was not 
seldom mentioned that a number of calls had to be 
sent out before one was accepted. Many of the men 
secured are recent graduates of the theological semi- 
nary. Not a few break down in the arduous work 
with its many privations. In late years, however, 
quite an improvement has been made in transporta- 
tion facilities, a number of automobiles now insuring 
more rapid transit. In addition to the white mis- 
sionaries, there are several native workers, best 
known among whom is Jack Keyes. 

The cost involved in supporting such a mission 
is of course considerable. We give a few figures 
which will show the average outlay. From May 1, 
1902, to April 30, 1903, the expenses, including the 
building of a church and some miscellaneous costs, 
amounted to $7,918.19. The budget between May 
1, 1906, and May 1, 1907, was $3,298-93. For 
the period May 1, 1911, to May 1, 1912, including 
building operations, the sum was $9,966.14. With 

Among the American Indians 151 

no major improvements included, the expenses be- 
tween May 1, 1915, and May 1, 1916, were 
$7,802.18, amounting to about the same sum the 
following year. The expansion during the last years 
and the high cost of living have of course greatly in- 
creased the budget. 

At first prejudice and indifference among the 
clergy and laity at home sometimes had a depress- 
ing effect on the men in the field, especially when 
only meager results were obtained. But this has 
been overcome, for as the whole undertaking assum- 
ed an aspect of success and permanency, the attitude 
underwent a complete change. If the efforts ex- 
pended in men and money be great, they are amply 
repaid from a Christian standpoint by the gain of 
immortal souls, won for the Kingdom of Christ. 

Chapter VII 


THE Stockbrldge Indians, among which the 
Missouri Synod is laboring with gratifying re- 
sults, have an interesting history. They are of New 
England stock, and were originally called Housa- 
tonic, their principal village being Westenhuck, 
Massachusetts, which was for a long time the capi- 
tal of the Mahican confederacy. In 1734 the Pres- 
byterian minister John Sergeant began missionary 
work among them, and two years later succeeded in 
gathering the converts into a regular mission town 
named Stockbridge, from which the tribe received 
the name that has clung to it ever since. 

However, here as elsewhere, the encroachment 
of the whites had a demoralizing influence, and 
participation in two wars, the French and Indian as 
well as the Revolutionary War, still further dimin- 
ished the numbers of the small tribe. In 1785 the 
remnant accepted an invitation of the Oneidas, and 
under the leadership of Samson Occom, an educat- 
ed native minister, settled in Oneida and Madison 
counties. New York, where the village of New 
Stockbridge sprang up. There the missionary work 
was continued. Under the protecting care of the 
Oneidas the tribe also increased again, numbering 
three hundred souls in 1796. 

Among the American Indians 153 

In 1833 another move was made, when in con- 
junction with the Oneida and the Munsee tribe they 
settled temporarily on a tract of land near Green 
Bay, Wisconsin. But already in 1839 the now united 
tribe of Stockbridges and Munsees agreed to move 
to lands assigned to them west of the Mississippi, 
while those who desired to become citizens were per- 
mitted to settle on the east shore of Winnebago 
Lake^ on the unsold half of the former reservation. 
However, both arrangements proved unsatisfactory. 
Thus once more the members were brought together 
and their tribal government restored. Finally, in 
1856, the united tribe made their last move when 
they settled on a reservation west of Shawano, Sha- 
wano Co., Wis. Here they have increased some- 
what, at the present time numbering about six hun- 
dred souls. Their reservation Is located in Red 
Springs Township. The land has within late years 
been patented to them, while they themselves have 
become full fledged American citizens. Some are 
fairly successful under the new circumstances, while 
others have fallen into poverty and squalor of their 
own choosing. 

Among this tribe Presbyterian ministers con- 
tinued to do missionary work. The most notable 
was Rev. Jeremiah Slingerland, an educated mem- 
ber of the tribe. He began his labors in 1849, re- 
moved with his charges to Shawano in 1856, and 
continued as pastor and teacher of the Government 
school until his death, in 1884. Tho he was a 
Presbyterian, that denomination did not contribute 
toward his support, the Government paying the sal- 

154 Lutheran Mission JVork 

ary for the double office of pastor and teacher. Af- 
ter his death the Government for some years con- 
tinued to support a pastor and Government teacher 
from available tribal funds. When this arrange- 
ment ceased, no regular Protestant church work 
was done for a number of years. 

It was in 1898 that a delegation of Stockbridge 
Indians came to Rev. Th. Nickel, at that time pas- 
tor in Shawano, and requested that he begin church 
work among them. With alacrity Rev. Nickel ac- 
cepted the invitation, all the more so since these 
Indians understood the English language. In that 
language he preached to them, a considerable num- 
ber attending the services. In addition, several 
showed a willingness to take instruction and be 
baptized. The whole undertaking thus had an 
auspicious start. 

In the following year the Missouri Synod de- 
cided to take over the mission, the work to be under 
the direction of an Indian mission board. Mr. J. 
D. Larsen, of Springfield Theological Seminary, was 
called as the first missionary. On September 3, 
1899, he was ordained and installed among his fu- 
ture charges. For the purposes of the mission 
twenty acres were bought, and a parsonage was 
erected at once, one room of which was to serve as a 
place for religious meetings. However, only nine 
short months was Rev. Larsen permitted to work 
among the Indians, his falling health demanding the 
discontinuation of the highly successful labors. Since 
it was not possible to secure a new missionary im- 
mediately, a student named E. Blegener supplied the 

Among the American Indians 155 

mission for one year. The services were well attend- 
ed. Soon the meeting room became too small, and 
in 1901 a church had to be built, an addition to 
which served for school purposes. The mission sta- 
tion is known as Red Springs, while the mail is re- 
ceived at Gresham. 

The same year a new missionary was secured In 
the person of Rev. R. Kretzmann, who was install- 
ed on July 14, 1901, at the same time the newly 
built church and school being dedicated. Rev. 
Kretzmann began his work with great enthusiasm. 
Already in 1901 he extended his field to the town 
of Keshena, and succeeded In establishing a preach- 
ing place there. The same result was obtained at 
Morgan. And in time Gresham was also visited, 
where he ministered to a number of Indian families. 
It has always been realized that a successful 
mission Is largely dependent upon a school where 
the children may be imbued with the spirit of Christ 
and thus won over. Rev. Kretzmann as well as the 
board had no doubt on this point. What else could 
one expect of members of the Missouri Synod, whose 
parochial school system has been unapproached by 
any other Lutheran body in America ! Mr. O. W. 
Volkert was accordingly engaged as teacher for the 
mission school. In August, 1902, he began his work, 
but already In 1903 God called His faithful servant 
to his eternal rest. Tho the position remained va- 
cant for some time, the work was continued never- 
theless. Rev. Kretzmann himself instructed in re- 
ligion, while the other subjects were taught for a 
time by an educated Christian Indian woman. Later, 

156 Lutheran Mission JFork 

tormer Rev. Kraft and a student named Gleffe serv- 
ed in the same capacity. It was not till 1905 that a 
regular teacher was secured in the person of J. r. 
Luebke, a graduate of the Teachers' Seminary at 
Addison. Under his careful guidance the school in 
Red Springs began to flourish. Children whose 
parents lived too far from the school were now ad- 
mitted into the homes of Christian Indians, and this 
increased the attendance of the school considerably. 

Rev. Kretzmann worked with great zeal and en- 
thusiasm, and soon added another place to his al- 
ready extensive parish. Twenty miles from Red 
Springs, almost buried in the primeval forest, is the 
so-called Wiaskesit Settlement of the Menominee 
Reservation. The missionary in his tour of investi- 
gation was informed that a number of children 
probably could be secured if a school were opened. 
Acting upon this information, the mission board had 
a school built, later also a house, and thus the sta- 
tion Zoar came into being. The Indians of that 
vicinity were still heathen, and sanitary conditions 
among them were unknown. As teacher of the school 
a certain Barneko was called, whose references 
seemed to indicate that he would be the proper per- 
son for the trying position. But unequal to the 
chaotic conditions, he left after a few weeks. In 
order that the work might go on. Rev. Kretzmann 
secured the services of educated Christian Indian 
women. But as a rule no one was willing to perform 
the dreary task long, and the teachers passed in 
rapid succession. 

It was imperative that a regular teacher be se- 

Among the American Indians 157 

cured, and finally the board was successful in calling 
Mr. A. Krenke. In September, 1904, he began his 
duties, but already in March, 1905, the illness of his 
wife compelled him to relinquish the position. Af- 
ter his resignation, educated Indian girls taught for 
a time, while later the school was abandoned tem- 
porarily. However, soon a great change for the 
better took place. The former missionary, J. D. 
Larsen, accepted a call to Zoar, arriving in January, 
1906. His wife taught school, while he himself did 
missionary work, besides teaching wherever an op- 
portunity offered itself. But the position of the 
missionary was anything but pleasant. The Indians 
were very much addicted to rum, and when their Gov- 
ernment allowances were paid, their indulgence 
knew no bounds. Under such conditions life among 
them became at times dangerous, tho no real harm 
was ever done to the missionaries. But in spite of 
all efforts no visible fruit was seen, for not a single 
Indian became a Christian. However, Rev- Larsen 
and his heroic wife worked on till conditions in Red 
Springs necessitated their removal thither. 

The work in Red Springs, the chief station, did 
not always progress according to the expectations of 
Rev. Kretzmann. The vices of the Indians especial- 
ly caused the missionary many a gloomy hour. But 
in spite of it he worked on courageously, fearlessly 
denouncing the sins. In time the Indians grew im- 
patient of the continued admonition and became 
hostile. Mr. Luebke, the faithful teacher of the 
school, did not escape. And soon the hostile In- 
dians requested the Presbyterians to serve them, an 

158 Lutheran Mission PFork 

invitation which was accepted. By this time the 
severe labor had told on the missionary, and in 1908 
ill health compelled him to accept a call from a white 
congregation. Soon after, the teacher, Mr. Luebke, 
also left, since the school had almost gone out of 
existence. For a time the board tried unsuccessful- 
ly to fill the vacancy, tho an early appointment had 
become imperative, as the minister of the Presby- 
terians was expected within a short time. 

In order to save the field. Rev. Larsen of Zoar 
had to be transferred to Red Springs, where he be- 
gan his work in April, 1908, one week after the 
representative of the Presbyterians, a halfblood 
Sioux Indian, had arrived there. However, Rev. 
Larsen had this advantage over his rival that he had 
been stationed in Red Springs before and enjoyed 
the confidence of the Indians. Under these circum- 
stances the halfblood Sioux soon found it advisable 
to abandon the field. The incursion of the Presby- 
terians had had few ill effects. Soon large audiences 
again greeted the missionary, and the Indians also 
requested that a school be opened. 

Within a short time their request was granted. 
For in the same year the synod at its general con- 
vention decided to erect an administration building 
and dormitory at Red Springs. In the fall of 1908 
the plans were carried out, the building with its 
equipment costing in the neighborhood of $5,000. 
Soon seventy-nine children attended the school. 
Mrs. Larsen had charge of the school, while Rev. 
Larsen himself taught Catechism and Bible History. 
Thus the work prospered, a strong impression also 
being made upon the adults. 


160 Lutheran Mission JVork 

Some of the conversions were truly remarkable. 
One in particular may be mentioned here. Durmg 
Kretzmann's residence in Red Springs an old heath- 
en Indian, a former soldier, had exposed himself 
to the cold while intoxicated, with the result that 
he became very sick. Rev. Kretzmann visited him 
and spoke to him about his sins. The Indian ap- 
peared to be repentant, was baptized, and promised 
that he would take further instruction and be con- 
firmed just as soon as his state of health permitted. 
But with the return of health he continued the for- 
mer sinful life. Again his intoxication threw him 
upon the sickbed which became his deathbed. Rev. 
Larsen, who was then in charge of the mission sta- 
tion at Red Springs, visited him and reproved him 
sharply on account of his sins. The Indian replied: 
"You are right. Reverend. I have lived a bad life. 
You cannot enumerate all the bad things I have 
done. But now I'll change." When the missionary 
voiced his doubt about the sincerity of the repent- 
ance, the Indian answered: "What you say is all 
true. They have often called me and I would not 
come. But now I feel that I must go. My end is 
coming, and I want to be saved." He desired 
instruction and the consolation of God's Word. 
The missionary gave both. When the Catholic 
priest heard of the sickness of the man, he went 
to him. Seeing the poverty, he promised to pro- 
vide all the necessities of life if the man only would 
turn Catholic. But his offer was met with the reply: 
"You cannot bait me with a soup bone." Rev. Lar- 
sen was rejoiced to see how gladly his instruction 

Among the American Indians 161 

was received. Even when the sick man became 
weaker and weaker, he would rise in bed, raise the 
folded hands and his face toward Heaven, and ex- 
claim: "Take me. Lord Jesus, Son of God, take me! 
I come, I come !" With these sentiments he departed 
this life. 

Not much need be said of Rev. Larsen's activi- 
ties during his later years, as he became more and 
more indifferent toward the mission and 
went into farming and stockraising for himself. 
Finally, in 1914, the board ended the intolerable 
condition by accepting the resignation of the mis- 

As successor Rev. Carl Guenther was now called, 
who formerly had worked for twelve years 
among the Apaches in Arizona, ill health at last 
forcing his resignation. He entered upon the duties 
of his new office on December 6, 1914. As a true 
missionary he accounted it a privilege to supervise 
the boarding school and to serve the Indian con- 
gregation. The children, to the number of sixty, 
ranging from six to sixteen years, found a true fa- 
ther in Rev. Guenther, who worked unceasingly for 
the moral and spiritual uplift of his charges. They 
were instructed in religion during school hours and 
had their regular devotional services in connection 
with their meals. In addition the missionary as- 
sembled them at other times, talking to them and 
praying and singing with them. Miss Koehler in 
the school did her best to transmit some knowledge 
to the minds entrusted to her care. Soon the cheer- 
ful Christian spirit spread from the children to the 

Among the American Indians 163 

parents. Stricter measures In regard to the congre- 
gation, insistence upon order, etc, brought only tem- 
porary opposition. And the mission board gave its 
hearty co-operation for the advancement of the sta- 

But the, work of the missionary was destined to 
be short. Some time after Easter he found his 
strength failing, but instead of enjoying a much 
needed rest, he was forced to carry the additional 
burden of six weeks' instruction in the school. The 
board, notified of his condition, urged him to hold 
out till the end of June. When this seemed inad- 
visable. Rev. Guenther handed in his resignation, 
which was, however, not accepted, a second attempt 
sharing the same fate. At the end of the school 
year he was forced to leave. When the rest brought 
no improvement, the resignation was finally ac- 
cepted, as another man was now ready to take up 
the work. 

After the resignation of Rev. Guenther a new 
missionary was secured in the person of Otis L. 
Lang, a graduate of the theological seminary at St. 
Louis, Missouri. He arrived in August, 1915, and 
Immediately took charge. His task was principally 
to superintend the boarding school of the mission, 
to do general mission work, and perform the duties 
as pastor of the Indian congregation, then number- 
ing twelve voting members. As the schobl was 
without an instructor at that time, he opened It per- 
sonally the followinng September with an initial at- 
tendance of fifty children. Within a short time Mr. 
E. Hassold, a student from the seminary at St. 

164 Lutheran Mission fVork 

Louis, was secured, who ably conducted the school 
during the year. In the fall Mr. E. A. Peetzke took 
charge, but the increase in the attendance to almost 
eighty made a division into two sections necessary. 
Miss Ina Kempf was in charge of the lower class 
till the summer of 1917, when Irene Brehmer was 
secured, who remained at her post until health con- 
ditions forced her to resign. In the meantime the 
school had increased to almost one hundred chil- 

The missionary took great delight in the re- 
ligious and secular training of the Indian children 
as they progressed in faith and knowledge. "To 
hear them answer the questions of the catechism 
and give account of their faith in religious instruc- 
tion, to hear them cheerfully singing praise to their 
Maker, Redeemer, and Comforter in their Chris- 
tian hymns, to see them kneeling about their little 
beds at retiring, saying their evening prayers, is 
an experience that thrills the heart and melts the 
eyes in tears of joy of anyone who is familiar with 
the blind heathendom and savagery that mark the 
history of their forefathers; it shows by strikirtg ex- 
amples the Gospel's power in the heart of children 
when brought under its influence. And to prove the 
strength of the faith of these little ones, I shall re- 
late an instance. One of them fell victim to the 
disease so prevalent among the Indians, tuberculosis, 
and failed very rapidly. She was removed from the 
school and placed in the care of a relative. Shortly 
before her death, a Roman Catholic priest, in whose 
denomination she had been baptized, came to see her 

Among the American Indians 165 

and tried with persuasion, threats, and even force 
to induce her to return to his church. But she mar- 
velously held her ground, refuting his arguments 
with passages of Scripture. When finally he told 
her that her only salvation would be by imploring 
the Virgin Mary to intercede for her, she pointed 
to a little prayer book. I had left with her and said: 
'I pray directly to my Lord Jesus. He has redeemed 
me and He loves me. He is almighty to save and 
my only comfort and hope. I need none other to 
intercede for me.' Thereupon she bade him go. 
She is seeing now what she faithfully believed." 

The mission work in general was also successful. 
Besides Red Springs with the mission school and 
congregation, two preaching stations were also 
served. Until he left, in the early part of 1918, 
the missionary had baptized three adults and fif- 
teen children, confirming ten in all. He also had 
the blessed experience of witnessing on deathbeds 
the triumph of faith in the last bitter hour, the 
greatest satisfaction and recompense mission work 
can offer. The Red Springs congregation had al- 
most doubled when in the early part of 1918 ill 
health forced Rev. Lang to hand in his resignation. 
But he has not lost his interest in his former charg- 
es, which is evident from the following passage: 
"To behold a Christian congregation of Indians is 
a remarkable and, indeed, cheering sight, if one re- 
flects upon the history of these people. While for- 
merly the women were treated like despicable beasts 
by the haughty warriors, they now come arm in 
arm to sing their Maker's praise. How often did I 
think of that when glancing over the eager copper- 

166 Lutheran Mission Work 

faced audience before me. God bless our Indian 
Mission I" 

When Rev. Lang was forced to leave, a call was 
tendered to and accepted by H. M. Tjernagel, a 
former missionary among the Eskimos in Alaska, 
who arrived on the field April 5, 1918, receiving a 
royal welcome from a committee of five Indian wo- 
men who had prepared a splendid supper in the par- 
sonage. Since that time the work has steadily pro- 
gressed. However, in late years the boarding school 
had outgrown its quarters, the building provided in 
1908 being entirely too small. The school rooms 
were overcrowded, and the equipment, including 
playground, entirely inadequate. The same could 
be said in regard to dormitory conditions. For 
some time the synod had been aware of the press- 
ing needs of the mission, and in 1917 made an ap- 
propriation of $26,000 for a modern building and 
equipment. But at first lack of funds, and then 
the war and the high cost of construction made the 
mission board hesitate to go ahead. 'However, at 
last necessity compelled action, and during the sum- 
mer of 1920 the erection of a dormitory accommo- 
dating about one hundred pupils and the employees 
was begun. The estimated cost of the building 
is $37,000, and it Is hoped that it will be fully equip- 
ped and ready for occupancy at the opening of the 
new school year in September, 1921. The old dor- 
mitory is being remodelled and will be used as a 
school building. 

During the last two years on the average a few 
more than one hundred pupils were enrolled in the 
boarding school. All the eight grades are taught 

Among the American Indians 167 

by the two teachers, the missionary himself giving 
instruction in religion. When Mr. Peetzke lett 
in 1918, being drafted into the army,women teach- 
ers and students were employed in the school. As 
these assistants under the supervision of the mission- 
ary have given satisfaction, and as there is a scarcity 
of the regular parochial teachers, no change is con- 
templated for the present. 

At the present time, the missionary work is car- 
ried on at three different places. Red Springs with 
its church and boarding school forms the center. 
At Morgan Siding, four miles from Red Springs, 
preaching services are conducted every second Sun- 
day. Since there seems to be considerable interest, 
the synod in 1920 appropriated $1,000 for the erec- 
tion of a chapel. Semi-monthly services are also held 
at Neopit, twelve miles from Red Springs, where a 
number of Lutheran Stockbridges work in the mill. 
Besides giving spiritual food to these people, the 
services are instrumental in winning annually a num- 
ber of children for the boarding school at Red 
Springs. At the three stations there are eighteen 
voting members, forty communicants, and two hun- 
dred forty-four souls, while in all about four hun- 
dred persons are reached thru instruction and 
preaching. Some of the adult Indians are well vers- 
ed in Lutheran theology, and are good church mem- 

Thus the work is bearing fruit and showing 
gratifying results. As an appropriate working mot- 
to the missionary has chosen Isaiah 55:10-11: "For 
as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heav- 
en, and returneth not thither, but watereth the 

168 Lutheran Mission JFork 

earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it 
may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater, 
so shall my word be that goeth forth out of my 
mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it 
shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall 
prosper in the thing whereto I sent it." On the 
strength of this he not only hopes but knows that 
the expenditures in labor and money are not in vain. 

Chapter VIII 



IT was in 1883 that the Norwegian Synod, now 
merged in the Norwegian Lutheran Church, act- 
ing on the appeal of Rev. Tobias Larsen, decided 
to begin missionary work among the Indians of 
Northern Wisconsin. In order to obtain concrete 
results it was proposed to establish a school for 
Indian children near Wittenberg in Shawano Co. 
.However, more than a year passed before the mis- 
sion board was able to extend a call to Eric O. 
Moerstad, who arrived on the field September 30, 
1884. He was directed to a certain George De 
Cora, an Indian who might aid him in acquiring the 
language. "This Indian had discarded his red 
blanket, was dressed like a white man, and lived in 
a small log house. He spoke fluent English. The 
missionary was welcomed by him, and the two were 
soon busily engaged in preparing a list of words 
and expressions in the Winnebago language. Mrs. 
DeCora — let us say — made dinner for them. An 
old oilcloth was laid on the floor, as there was no 
table. Nor were there any chairs, and dinner had 
to be eaten as conveniently as possible seated on 
the floor. The meal consisted of pork, potatoes, 
bread and butter, and tea with sugar. It was relish- 
ed by the partakers, and showed marked improve- 
ments in civilization." 

170 Lutheran Mission Work 

Three and a half miles west of Wittenberg, 
where several families of the Winnebago tribe resid- 
ed, forty acres of land was secured, and a mission 
station, receiving the name Bethany, was soon in 
course of construction. Into this modest building, 
18x26, four little Indian boys were received and 
made comfortable. In spite of this, the temptation 
for these boys to return to their kin was great. At 
the same time, Indians as well as unscrupulous 
whites tried to hinder the work in every conceivable 
way. As usual in such cases, the missionary was 
represented as a dangerous man. Among other 
things, it was claimed that every family from which 
children attended the mission school would lose fifty 
dollars of its annual Government allowance. Here ' 
also, as in the case of the Bethany Mission in Mich- 
igan, the story was circulated that children would 
be sent across the ocean and never return. But 
these slanderous statements had little effect. 

In September, 1885, the Indian mission board 
held a session at Wittenberg and naturally also 
visited the mission station. There they were receiv- 
ed by Mr. Midtbo and family, which seems to in- 
dicate that Rev. Moerstad no longer had to attend 
to household duties. After due deliberation it 
was decided to make further Improvements In or- 
der to accommodate the Indian boys who presum- 
ably would attend the school during the coming 
winter. Already before, the building had been en- 
larged by a frame addition, and now the roof on 
the part built of logs was to be raised in order that 
the attic might serve as sleeping quarters for the 
boys. It was furthermore decided to build at Wit- 

Among the American Indians 171 

tenberg and to expand the work, the report stating 
that, "we must do something for the Indians, so 
much the more as we now have the consent of the 
Government to receive children also from other 
parts, especially the Stockbridge and Oneida res- 
ervations, as well as to carry on the work in gen- 

For a consideration of eight hundred dollars 
eighty acres of land was bought for the new station 
during the winter of 1886. In the spring and sum- 
mer this land was cleared of boulders, timber, and 
underbrush. A well, which provided excellent water, 
was also dug. However, in the fall of the same 
year. Rev. Moerstad, who previously had asked 
for his release, and whom we shall meet again as a 
missionary to the Pottawatomies, left the station. 
It was now deemed best to discontinue the work at 
the old location, the six remaining Indian children 
being temporarily cared for at the Homme Or- 
phans' Home at Wittenberg. The building and the 
forty acres of land, now partly cleared and cultivat- 
ed, were bought by Mr. MIdtbo, the steward. 

Building operations on the new site progressed 
rapidly, the first structure with the respectable dimen- 
sions of 28x72 and 28x60, having basement, two 
stories, and an attic, being finished during the first 
half of 1887. On July 4th this Bethany Indian 
Mission and Industrial School was solemnly dedi- 
cated. Thus the mission had found a second and 
more commodious home for its work among the In- 
dian children. Including the land, the property 
represented a value of six thousand dollars. A new 
superintendent was secured in the person of Rev. 

172 Lutheran Mission fVork 

T. Larsen, who with two teachers and other em- 
ployees entered upon his new duties on the day of 
the dedication of the mission. This force was aug- 
mented in the following year by the appointment of 
Axel Jacobson as teacher and assistant superin- 

At the beginning eight children were in attend- 
dance, but in August this number was increased by 
twelve from the Oneida tribe, while in November 
an additional twelve swelled the total to thirty-two. 
Soon an important event made possible another in- 
crease. For on January 1, 1888, a contract was 
entered into with the United States Government 
for the support of twenty-five children. This con- 
tract was renewed from time to time, the number 
of Government supported children being gradually 
increased. Thus in 1894, for instance, it provided 
for one hundred and fifty children. These were 
generally drawn from different tribes, in 1894 be- 
ing divided as follows : Oneida ninety-nine. Stock- 
bridge thirty-two, Brothertown ten, Winnebago five, 
Chippewas ten, Mohawks three. By securing chil- 
dren from different tribes, the work of education 
and civilization was greatly aided, as the children 
were thus forced to desist from using their native 
dialect in play and conversation. The financial sup- 
port granted by the Government, however, was in- 
adequate, as the Government schools received for 
their children about twice the amount of that of the 
contract schools. 

This partial control by the Government did not 
affect the religious life in any marked way. Prac- 
tically the only restriction was in the use of denom- 

Among the American Indians 173 

inational text books, but this could be made good 
thru verbal instruction. Each day the children 
were taught the fundamentals of the Christian re- 
ligion, they had their morning and evening devotion- 
al exercises, and on Sundays attended the regular 

Besides the usual subjects, work of a vocational 
nature was also taken up. "Since the Allotment 
Bill of 1887 entitles the Oneidas and Chippewas to 
a piece of land individually on their respective 
reservations, some time is spent in giving the boys 
instruction and practice in farming and clearing 
land. The work progresses slowly, but at times it 
is interesting to listen to the young fellows' plans 
and devices as to their future home, on which Uncle 
Sam in time awards them a deed. There is also 
an opportunity for those who wish to learn carpen- 
»try, painting, smithery, etc." 

On account of failing health Rev. Larsen had 
relinquished the superintendency in 1893, being suc- 
ceeded by Axel Jacobson, who occupied that posi- 
tion till 1895. In that year congressional action 
made a radical change necessary. A bill was passed 
which reduced the contracts 20 per cent each year, 
so that in 1900 all support would be withdrawn, tho 
Indian treaty and trust funds could still be used. 
As in 1895 the attendance had reached the number 
of one hundred and forty, the synod was unable to 
operate the Bethany Mission on such a large scale. 
So it was finally agreed to sell the entire property 
to the United States Government, which was to con- 
tinue the school. The superintendency of the Gov- 
ernment institution was offered to Axel Jacobson 

174 Lutheran Mission fFork 

with the understanding that the old teaching force 
be retained. Mr. Jacobson accepted and held the 
position as superintendent of the school and agent 
for the Winnebago tribe from 1895-1905, when 
he resigned to take a long deserved rest after eight- 
een years of continuous work among the Indians. 

The Norwegian Synod decided to continue the 
mission on a smaller scale at a suitable location, 
where, it was thought, the children would be af- 
forded better opportunity to receive industrial train- 
ing of the kind they needed. The IngersoU farm, lo- 
cated seven miles from Wittenberg, was bought, 
and in July, 1900, the Indian Mission moved into 
its new home and was continued independently ot 
the United States Government. 

As a superintendent of the mission Rev. B. 
Hovde was appointed, being succeeded after his 
retirement a few years later by Mr- O. C. Tostrud^ 
an experienced teacher, who with the help of his 
devoted wife achieved considerable success. The 
number of children during this period was of course 
far smaller than at Wittenberg, ranging from 
twenty-five to fifty, mostly of the Winnebago tribe. 
They did not remain during the whole year, as 
had been expected, but arrived late in the fall and 
left during May. Thus the plan of having the 
Indian children work on the farm during the sum- 
mer could not be realized. Neither was the op- 
eration of a large farm in connection with the mis- 
sion a very paying proposition. One can imagine 
the trying time of the superintendent, who had to 
manage both the farm and the mission. He was 
forced to do the greater part of the teaching and 

Among the American Indians 175 

assist in the farm work, while all the other duties 
of the double position rested upon his shoulders. 
Among these were marketing, trips to secure chil- 
dren and to bring them back when they ran away, 
which not seldom happened. 

However, the location was not a very good one. 
The nearest railroad stations were Eland Junction, 
four miles, and Wittenberg, seven miles distant. 
This involved considerable labor and much incon- 
venience. The spiritual needs were looked after by 
Rev. M. C Waller, who conducted divine services 
at the mission every third Sunday during the school 
year. All baptisms, confirmations, and communion 
services also took place at IngersoU instead of at 
the church in Wittenberg. 

The handicaps of the location were found in- 
creasingly embarrassing, so finally, in 1912, a com- 
mittee was appointed charged with the duty to visit 
IngersoU together with the Indian mission board. 
It was to report back to the synod the results of 
its investigation, especially In regard to the advisa- 
bility of moving the mission to some other place. 
On the strength of the report made by this com- 
mittee, the general convention was petitioned to sell 
the IngersoU farm and to move the mission to some 
city, preferably Wittenberg. The recommendations 
of the board were adopted, and in the fall of 1913 
the mission was back once more In Wittenberg, 
where the entire property of the Wittenberg Acade- 
my Association had been bought for Indian mission 

Prof. Axel Jacobson was now called to the 
superlntendency, and under his able administration 


Lutheran Mission Work 

the Bethany Indian Mission has enjoyed a healthy 
growth. The whole movement received a great im- 
petus when the newly formed Nortvegian Lutheran 
Church authorized the repurchase of the original 
Bethany Indian Mission site, so that the school is 

Indians and Tlieir Dwelling 

now located at its old quarters. A number of val- 
uable improvements had been made during the Gov- 
ernment ownership. The deal, involving property 
estimated at $65,000, was concluded in January, 

At the well appointed quarters at Wittenberg, 
the attendance has steadily increased. For some 
years it ranged from fifty to seventy, but lately the 
one hundred mark has been passed. During the 
latter part of 1919 there were 120 children in the 
school, with an additional one hundred applications 
on file. This year, 1920-21, has seen the largest 

178 Lutheran Mission Jf'ork 

attendance in the history of the school, 140 being 
enrolled. These are mostly from the Winnebago 
and Oneida tribes. There are eighteen members in 
the confirmation class, and twelve children are like- 
ly to be baptized. Since the beginning of the Betha- 
ny Indian Mission there have been 363 adult and 
infant baptisms, 142 have been confirmed, and 
425 have communed. In the school the common 
branches are taught; in addition religious instruc- 
tion is given,, the children being divided into con- 
venient groups for that purpose. But not only 
does the mission furnish instruction, but also food 
and lodging, and to a considerable extent also cloth- 

Among the older Indians in the settlement con- 
siderable progress has been made. Services are 
held every Sunday afternoon, and the attendance 
is fair. A number of adult baptisms have also tak- 
en place of late. Furthermore, the work has been 
extended to the Indian settlements near Wittenberg, 
services being held at the Bethany Indian Church 
at Embarrass River. The children and others are 
also somewhat assisted as to clothing, especially 
during the coldest part of the winter. Rev. T- M. 
Rykken, of the 1920 class from Luther Theological 
Seminary, devotes his time exclusively to Indian 
missionary work. 

When more than thirty years ago the mission- 
aries began work among the Winnebagoes in the 
forests of Wisconsin, the Red Man paid only slight 
attention to them. Xo material want existed then, 
for there was an abundance of deer in those days, 
deer hunting being the main source of sustenance 

180 Lutheran Mission IVork 

for the Indians. Every one was then dressed in 
buckskin, and quite often the wigwams were also 
covered with the same material. In winter it was 
a common sight to see one or more carcasses of 
frozen deer hanging outside of the wigwam. Be- 
fore the first fall hunt a dance lasting one or two 
days was held, when by speeches and supplications 
they implored divine blessing for the first hunt. 

These Indians, happy and contented, were en- 
tirely deaf and indifferent to the pleadings of the 
missionaries to send their children to school. As 
hunting became poorer and want made its presence 
felt, a gradual change took place. A few children 
began attending school, and reading and writing 
came to be looked upon as a good thing. But when 
it became known that the children received instruc- 
tion about the Triune God, there was violent ob- 
jection from the medicine men, of which the tribe 
of fourteen hundred had about seventy-five. 

In course of time, however, a great change also 
appeared in this respect, and very gratifying results 
in the Christianization of the Indians were secured. 
Superintendent Jacobson narrates one instance which 
tends to destroy the fallacy that one cannot civilizi 
or Christianize a heathen in the first generation. 
"I have in mind a Winnebago boy, a relative of 
Bighawk the chief. I tried and tried for a couple 
of years back in 1888 or 9 to get the father to send 
him to school. He was a bright looking lad about 
eight years old, clad in buskskin from top to toe, al- 
so wearing the long cue down the back of his head. 
One day I succeeded in getting him into school. I 
took him below to the laundry building, clipped 

Among the American Indians 181 

his hair, and dressed him up in white man's clothing. 
The next day the father appeared, looked at the 
boy in a surly manner, and eyed me in no more 
lovable style. At last he pointed to where the cue 
had been and also made signs as to the buckskin 
clothing. I walked along down to where I had 
clipped the hair, and the old man carefully hunted 
until he found the cue of hair, and after carefully 
wrapping this up in the buckskin clothing, he left 
satisfied. The unexpected happened. The boy 
stayed right here at the mission, learned to play 
the E-flat bass horn in our Indian brass band better 
than any white boy, was baptized and confirmed. 
He was a real Christian spirited boy. We sent him 
to the Carlisle Indian School for further training. 
While there the Spanish American War came on, 
and Thomas Bear and another boy, Albert Thun- 
der, left for the Philippines as United States sol- 
diers, Thomas as leader of the regimental band. 
After serving two years he was honorably dis- 
charged and came back here to take up a course in 
our Lutheran Academy. Thomas was taken sick of 
a spinal disease and died at the academy a true 
Christian. The principal of the school gave him the 
testimony of being the neatest, best behaved, and 
Christian spirited boy at the academy, where he 
was the only Indian." 

How different and in many respects easier is not 
the work now than it was thirty years ago ! Then 
the workers had to scour the country for weeks, 
mostly on foot, and how they rejoiced if only one 
child was entrusted to their care. Now the par- 
ents bring them to the mission without any solicita- 

182 Lutheran Mission fVork 

tion and beg the superintendent to teach them about 
the true God and Christ the Savior. When the 
medicine men still held perfect sway, the parents 
on hearing that their children were taught religion 
at the mission school rebelled. The teaching of 
such useful things as reading and writing they per- 
mitted, but considered themselves and their medi- 
cine men alone competent persons to give instruc- 
tion concerning the Great Spirit. At the present 
time the situation is entirely changed. Only about 
three to four hundred are still clinging to the old 
beliefs, while the others believe with varying 
strength in the Triune God, who speaks to men 
thru His inspired Word. The influence of the 
few remaining medicine men is fast waning. Thus 
Bethany Indian Mission under the guidance of its 
enthusiastic superintendent is permitted to perform 
its great woric without let or hindrance. 

Chapter IX 



IN the fall of the year 1884 the undersigned was 
sent by the Norwegian Lutheran Synod to start 
mission work among the Indians in the vicinity of 
Wittenberg, Shawano Co., Wisconsin. For rea- 
sons not to be given in this very short sketch", but 
which, at that time at least, seemed sufficiently im- 
portant, I resigned and left said position in the fall 
of 1886. I did, however, get much interested in 
the poor, neglected Indians, and never could rid 
myself of the feeling of the urgent responsibility 
that we, who profess to be Christians, have in bring- 
ing them the Word of God, the Gospel of our Lord 
and Savior Jesus Christ (Matt. 28: 19-20). I am 
glad that the mission work among the Indians in 
that vicinity has been continued ever since I left, 
and, as I verily believe, by much more efficient 
workers than the then young and inexperienced in- 
dividual who was to try to make a start, and that 
a large and prosperous mission school is still car- 
ried on at Wittenberg by the Norwegian Lutheran 

While the largest part of the Indians around 
Wittenberg were Winnebagoes, there were also 
quite a number of the so-called Pottawatomie tribe. 
The last named, being, at that time at least, by far 
the more industrious and thrifty of the two, partic- 

184 Lutheran Mission fVork 

ularly attracted my attention and interest. Several 
of these attended the mission school I had there at 
that time. 

After vicissitudes and experiences gone thru for 
several years, I felt about the year 1893 a strong 
inclination to do something for my Pottawatomie 
friends. In that year I made written application for 
aid at the annual conference at Clear Lake, Iowa, of 
the Eielsen Synod, to which body I then belonged. 
The dear Christian friends assembled there gave a 
very hearty response to my appeal, and decided to 
take up and support the proposed mission work 
among these poor, benighted, and so long neglected 
people. I began teaching both young and old at 
their village some four to five miles from Witten- 
berg. However, in that neighborhood all the land 
had been bought up long before and only a few of the 
Indian families possessed title to forty acre tracts 
of cleared and cultivated land. Most of them were 
looking for more land and new homes, which they 
found in the timbered parts of Marinette, Forest, 
and Oconto counties, Wis. Most of these families 
and others of the northeastern part of Wisconsin 
moved to this region during the following years. 
As they had no money to buy land, however, they 
could take up only such pieces of homestead land as 
was left scattered thruout these wholly unsettled 
and thickly timbered regions. In consequence of this 
the Indians became badly scattered, being placed 
quite a number of miles apart in the dense forest. 

It can easily be imagined that this made it very 
difficult to carry on mission work among these peo- 

Among the American Indians 185 

pie. But I have tried to do what I could, learning 
their language, a variation of the Otchipwe, entire- 
ly distinct from the Winnebago which 1 had been 
trying to acquire years before, teaching and instruct- 
ing such as I could gather. And then for many 
years, eventually together with attorneys at Wash- 
ington, I endeavored to obtain for them the benefits 
promised them in treaties. Thus finally we recovered 
about $450,000 justly found due them by our Gov- 
ernment. This took many years, but at last a super- 
intendency was provided for them, at first at Carter, 
and now for several years at Laona, Wis. With the 
money recovered for them land has been bought and 
houses built for some sixty or seventy families in this 
neighborhood and not far from Escanaba in north- 
ern Michigan. In addition, horses, cattle, and farm 
implements were also provided for them. Thus 
by God's kind providence their temporal condition 
has been materially improved. 

But as to the most important of all, the one 
thing needful, I am sorry to say, we have, for 
reasons that may partly be inferred from the above 
short description, as yet not been able to do much for 
them. But I trust and hope in the Lord, who has 
had compassion on us all in calling us to Him by the 
blessed Gospel, and who would not that any one, 
of any nation or tribe, should perish, but that all 
should come to repentance and thru faith in Jesus 
have everlasting life, that thru the operation of His 
Spirit there may yet be an awakening among these 
so much neglected and unfortunate people. To 
every earnest and praying soul who reads this, I 
would say: Oh, remember this poor and ignorant 

186 Lutheran Mission Work 

Indian tribe in your prayers! My health has been 
failing for a number of years, after much mental and 
physical exertion thruout life, and I have not been 
able to get around much of late years. But Rev. L. 
A. Dokiien and his sister, stationed at Carter, who 
are yet in the prime of life and active in gettmg 
around among the Indians and others, have now for 
a few years been in this work. This makes the 
situation more hopeful. May we all be more 
seriously concerned about our salvation, and by the 
grace of God do all we can for our fellow men 1 



WE have listed here the more important publications 
which have furnished source material or have been of 
help in the preparation of the book. As a rule the ed tions 
that were accessible to the author lia.e been cite3. There 
is no intention to give an exhaustive bibliography. In these 
notes we have also indicated the nature of assistance received 
from missionaries and others. 


Acrelius, Israel (Swedish), 1759. A History of New Sweden, 
translated by W. M. Reynplds, 1874. 

Bjorck, Eric. Dissertatio Gradualis de Plantatione Ecclesiae 
Svecanae in America, Upsala, 1731. 

Campanius Holm, Thomas (Swedish). A Short Description of 
the Province of New Sweden, Stockholm, 1702. Translated 
by Peter S. Du Ponceau, Phil., 1839. 

Du Ponceau, Peter S. Notes and Observations on Eliot's In- 
dian Grammar, in Vol. IX of Mass. Hist. Society Publ. 

Ferris. History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware, 
Wilmington, 1846. 

Johnson, Amandus. The Swedish Settlements on the Dela- 
ware. 2 vols., University of Pa., 1911. 

Norberg, Otto. Svenska Tcyrkans mission vid Delaware i Nord- 
Amerika, Stockholm, 1893. 

Plitt-Hardeland. Geschichte der lutherischen Mission, Leipzig, 

Tacobs, H. E., History of the Evang. Luth. Church in the 
United States, Vol.' IV in the American Church History 
Series, has been consulted for this as also for the follow- 
ing chapter. The cut of Campanius' Catechism is from 
the copy in the library of Augustana College and Seminary, 
Rock Island, 111. Rev. Ira Nothstein, the librarian, was so 
kind as to facilitate a proper description of this important 


Pitcher, J. Historical Address, Hartwick Seminary Centen- 
nial, 1897, based upon Memorial Volume, Hartwick Semi- 
nary, 1866. 

Schmauk, T. E. History of thie Lutheran Ghwch in Penn- 
sylvania, 1903. 

Urlsperger, S. Der ausfuehrlichen Nachrichten — Salzburger 
Emigranten in America. 12 Theile. Halle, 1735-46. 

Prof. A. G. Voigt, D.D., of Columbia, S. C, was kind enough 
to examine the Urlsperger Nachrichten for the author. 
Principal J. G. Traver, D.D., of Hartwick Seminary, also 
assisted in every possible way. 

188 Lutheran Mission Work 

Besides the numbers of "Kirchliche Mitteilungen" and 

"Der Lutheraner", one must mention 

Baierlein, E. R. Im Urwaldc. Bet dm roten Indiancrn. 2. 
Auflage. Dresden, 1889. 

Fritschel, G. J. Quellen und Dokumente, etc., Lleferung 1-4 

Graebner, Th. Lutheran Pioneers. II. The Bavarian Settle- 
ments of the Saginaw Valley, St. Louis, 1919. 

Karsten. Geschichte der ev. luth. Mission in Leipzig. Quoted 
by Fritschel in his translation and adaptation of Jacobs' 

Mayer, E. A. Geschichte der evangelisch-lutherischen St. Lo- 
rcn::-Gcmcindc U. A. C. aii Frankenmuth, Mich., St. Louis, 

Meyer, H. Dein Reich komme. Missionsvortraege. St. Louis, 
1910. Contains a valuable address by R. A. Karpinsky: 
Die Indianermission unserer Synode. 

Schmid, Friedrich, jr. Das Leben und ^Virken von Pastor 
Friedrich Schmid, in Vol. 9, No. 4 of Deutsch-Amerikani- 
sche Geschichtsblaetter, herausgegeben v. d. Deutsch-Ame- 
rikanischen Historischen Gesellschaft von Illinois, 

The late lamented Prof. Dr. T. E. Schmauk consulted for the 
author the Minutes of tlte Ministerium of Pennsylvania. 
The writer is also indebted to Prof. L. Fuerbringer for 
valuable help given in this and the VII chapter. He has 
shown a very sympathetic interest in the whole work. 

Deindoerfer, J. Geschichte der Evangel.-Luth. Synode von 

Iowa und anderen Staaten, Chicago, 1897. 
Fritschel, G. J. Geschichte der Lutherischen Kirchc in Ame- 

rika, Guetersloh, 1896-7. 

The numbers of the "Kirchenblatt" furnish the source 


All the material as well as the photograph was kindly fur- 
nished by Missionary Nielsen. 


Harders, J. F. G. Die heuttgen Apachen, Milwaukee, 1912. 

Koch, 0. H. JuMlaeumsbuechlein zum fuenfundzwanzig- 
jaehrigen Juhilaeum der Evangelisch-Lutherischen India- 
nermission der Allgemeinen Synode von Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Michigan u. a. St. Milwaukee, 1919. 
Th© "Synodalberichte" from 1893 on are a fruitful source. 

Supplementary matter was furnished by Rev. E. Guenther, the 

superintendent, thru Rev. E. A. Sitz. 

Among the American Indians 189 


Karpinsky's article, referred to in Chapter III, is valuable. 
Tjernagel, H. M., The Stockbridge Indians, 1919, also fur- 
nishes some information. Most of the material was ob- 
tained from the missionaries, Carl Guenther, Otis L. Lang, 
and H. M. Tjernagel. Rev. G. C. Schroedel, of the Indian 
Mission Board, was also instrumental in obtaining informa- 


Waller, M. C, Bethany Indian Mission, is a valuable source. 
For the presentation of this mission the author found a 
very helpful assistant in Superintendent Axel Jacobson, 
who furnished much material and all the illustrations, 
most of them in cuts. 


Rev. Moerstad's article appears substantially as sent In, some 

slight stylistic changes being due to the author. 


Acrelius, 41, 187. 
Adascheck, G., 120, 126 ff. 
Adolphus, G., 19, 20, 21. 
Algonquin, 23. 
Apaches, 15, 121 ff. 

religion of, 124 ff. 
Arapahoes, 106, 107, 109. 
Auch, 15, 56, 61, 89. 
Auren, J., 35, 40. 
Baierlein, 13, 15, 67-86, 188. 
Beck, 102, 104, 105. 
Bethany Indian Mission 

(Michigan), 58 ff. 
Bethany Indian Mission 

(Norwegian), 169 ff. 
Bj0rck, E., 35, 39, 40, 41, 1S7. 
Bois-forte Indians, 97, 98. 
Boltzius, J., 44, 45, 40. 
Braeuninger, 99-106. 
Brahe, 27. 

Braun, A. T., 48, 54. 
Buffalo Synod, 96, 101. 
Bunge, 102. 
Campanius, J., 25 ff 
Campanius, Th., 27, 187. 
Carrixo Canyon, 141. 
Central Mission Society of 

Bavaria, 10, 60, 101. 
Charles XI, 35. 
Cherokees, 44, 115 ff. 
Cheyennes, 100 ff. 
Chippewas, 14, 55 ff., 93, 94, 

172 f. 
- Cliurches, first, 25. 
Cibecue, 147 ff. 
Cloeter, 93, 94. 
Colonial Pioneers, 9. 

Colonization, 18. 

Columbus, 18. 

Cooper, 53. 

Craemer, F. A., 00-70, 76, 93. 

Crow Indians, 98 ff., 105, 10(i, 

Crow Wing, 93. 
Danish Ev. Luth. Church, 

Defensive League, 33. 
Deindoerfer, J., 188. 
Delawares, 23, 24, 30, 38, 41. 

religion of, 28, 29. 
Denominational Rivalry, 12. 

67, 83, 87, 00, 92. 
Doederloin, 102. 
Dokken, L. A., ISO. 
Dumser, 56. 
Dutch, 24, 27, 33. 
East Fork, 135 ff. 
Eastman, Ch. A., 12. 
Ebenezer, 44, 46, 47. 
Eielsen Synod, 183 ff. 
Eliot, 13, 30, 31, 38, ,39. 
Ernst, .7. F., .54. 
Ezardi, Dr., 34. 
Fabritius, .33. 
Ferris, 187. 

Fire-water, 16, 73, S2, !Ml. 
Fischer, G., 133. 
Flacheneeker, 106, 110. 
Fort Apache Reservation, 

122 ff. 

Fort Christina, 22. 
Fort Sarpy, 90. 
Francke, Prof., 45, 46, 
Franckenmuth, 60 ff. 

Fritschel, G. J., 188. 

Fritschel, S., 96. 

Globe, 141 ff. 

Graebner, Th., 62 f., 188. 

Gronau, 44, 46. 

Guenther, C, 129-133, 161-163, 

Gnenther, E., 140 ff., 188. 
Haase, H., 132, 139 f. 
Harders, G., 15, 132 ff., 188. 
Hartwick Seminary, 49, 54. 
Hartwig, J. Oh., 49-54. 
Hattstaedt, W., 59, 60, 61, 66. 
Heckewelder, 38. 
Hessellus, A., 41, 42 . 
Holland, 18, 19, 21. 
Hovde, B., 174. 
Hudson Bay Co., 96, 97. 
Hymns, Translation of, 75, 76, 

Iowa Synod, 95 ff. 
i^Iroquois, 23. 
Jacobs, H. E., 50, 187. 
Jacobson, Axel, 173 ff., 189. 
Jesuits, 97. 
Johnson, A., 187. 
Karpinsky, K. A., 188, 189. 
Karsten, 188. 
Kessler, 102, 106, 109, 110. 
Koch, O. H., 122, 188. 

Krebs, 102, 106, 107, 109, 110, 

112, 118. 
Kretzmann, R., 155 ff. 
Kunze, Dr., 48, 49, 54. 
Landstr0m, 29. 
Lang, O. U, 163-6, 189. 
■-^Language, 13, 14, 15. 
Larsen, J. D., 154, 157, 158, 

160, 161. 
Larson, T., 169, 172, 173. 
Lenne, Lennape, 23. 
Leupp, Francis E., 12. 

Lock, L., 33. 

Leolie, W., 15, 16, 58, 59, 60, 
66, 81, 95 ff. 

i^Lord's Prayer, translation of, 

•'Luther's Catechism, transla- 
tion, 30, 31, 32, 35-41, 137. 
Maier, 89. 

Matter, 109, 110, 112. 
Mayer, E. A., 188. 
Mayerhoff, P., 121, 129 ff., 

135 ff. 
Meyer, H., 188. 
Michigan Synod, 55, 59, 60, 

66, 88, 89. 
Miessler, 14, 78, 84, 87, 88-92. 
Mlnisterium of Pennsylvania, 

55, 88. 
Minques, 23, 38. 
Minuit, P., 21, 22. 
Missionary Enterprises, 18. 
Missouri Synod, 66, 88, 89, 93, 

95, 152 ff. 
Modern Civilization, 15. 
Moerstad, 169-71, 183 ff., 189. 
Mohavpk, 23, 172. 
Morgan, Siding, 167. 
Mt. Pleasant, 91, 92. 
Muehlenberg, H. M., 48, 50. 
Neopit, 167. 
Neuendettelsau, 58, 60, 96, 105, 

Nickel, Th., 154. 
Nielsen, N. L., 116 ff., 188. 
Nitz, H. C, 147. 
Norberg, O., 187. 
Norwegian Luth. Church, 

169 ff. 
Norwegian Synod, 169, 174, 

Nothstein, I., 187. 
Notions of Christ, 29. 
Oaks, Okla., 115 ff. 

Ogalala, 104, 105. 
Oneiilns, iri2, 172 f. 
Oxenstierna, A., 21, 26. 
IVmngojin, 77, 85. 
I'onii, W., 24. 
rL-niis.vlvaiiia Soeietv, u.".. 56, 

Peridot, 127 ff. 

IMtcher, J., 187. 

riitt-IIaideland, 187. 

riocher, .T„ 120, 126 ff. 

Ponceau, Du, P. S., 38, 1S7. 

Pottawatomies, 171, 183 ff. 

Pi'intz, 2(i, 27, 32, 33. 

Ralibit Lake Indians, 93. 

Uoclinagel, E., 143. 

Ited Springs, 1j3 ff. 

Uedfield, 9G. 

Religion, 10-13. 

Rhinebeck, 40, 50. 

Rising, 32. 

Roman Catholics, 31, 43, 47, 

97, 134, 147. 
Rosin, 147. 
Rudniau, 25, 35. 
Rumors, spreading of, 06, 67, 

S3, 90, 170. 
Rykken, T. M., 17S. 
Saginaw, 01. 
Salzburgers, 43-47. 
San Carlos, 134 ff. 
San Carlos Reservation, 

122 ff. 
Schlegel, (!., i;?5. 
Schmauck, T. E., 1S7, 18S. 
Scliniid, F., 55, 59, 61, 18S. 
Schmidt, J. .7., 96 ff. 

Schools, 64 ff., 71), 74 ff., S7, 
117, lis, 127, 12S. 130 ff., 
l.V, ff. 

Srhroedel, C. C, 188. 

Schucller, 95. 

Scbewaing, 56, 87, 88. 

Se.Tler, 102, 105, 109. 

Sheboyank, 15, 89. 

Sievers, 85, 86. 

Sinke, 56. 

Sioux, 104, 110, 111, 112. 

Sitz, E. A., 141, 188. 

Spirit, great, 11. 

Stockbridges, 152 ff., 172. 

Stuyvesant, 33. 

Sussner, 97. 

Svedberg, J., 34, 35. 

Sweden, 18 ff. 

Thelin, .7., 34. 

Tjernagcl, II. JI., 100 ft, 189. 

Toepel, K., 133. 

Torkillus, 2") 

Tostrud, O. C, 174 f. 

Travcr, J. G., 187. 

Treatment of Indians, 9, 10, 

22, 24, 20, 27, 47. 
United Danish Ev. Luth. 

Church, 116 ff. 

Uplegger, A., 134, 14(i. 

Uplegger, P., 134. 

Urlsporger, Dr. S., 44, 1S7. 

T's.selinx, 19, 2(i. 

Voigt, A. G., 1X7. 

Waller, M. C, 175, ]S!i. 

Wehaiisen, M., 140. 

Weiiulorf. A.. 149. 

Wei.ser, 48. 

West India Co., 10, 21, 22. 

Whiteriver, 141. 

Wicacoa, 25. 

Winnebagoes, 170, 172 ff., 
1 s:i. 

Wisionsin Synod, 121 ff. 

Wittcnlicig, 109 ff. 

Zoar, l.-.(i ff. 

Zuberbicr, A., 133, 149.